Early Georgian Portraits Catalogue: Frederick

The following text is from the National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: John Kerslake, Early Georgian Portraits, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1977 (now out of print). For the most up to date research on the Collection, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text. This can be accessed by following the link with each portrait’s title.

In consulting the following, please note that apart from the reformatting which allows the printed catalogue to be made available on-line the text is as published in 1977. Footnotes in the original edition are given within square brackets.

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Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales (1707-51)
Eldest son of George II; 'poor Fred'; born at Hanover, created Duke of Gloucester, 1717, Duke of Edinburgh and KG, 1727; came to England, 1728, Prince of Wales, 1729; married, 1736, Augusta of Saxe Gotha; banished from St James's, 1737, removed to Norfolk House, London, and Kew; a musician of moderate skill, he had a fine taste in pictures.

1164 (With an attendant, possibly his groom of the bedchamber, Captain Thomas Bloodworth), by Bartholomew Dandridge, c.1732.
Oil on canvas, 48 1/2 x 39 1/2 in. (1232 x 1003 mm); whitish eyebrows, prominent large blue eyes, wide mouth, a mole on the left of his chin, white wig with flowing tail; black hat edged with silver lace, scarlet jacket and breeches, buff waistcoat, white lace shirt ruffle, Garter star and ribbon, light brown gauntlets and black riding boots; mounted on a bay stallion with steaming breath, green saddle cloth and pistol cloth with a crown; a groom (?) in blue jacket with gold lace and scarlet cuffs, stands left; a church spire seen across water or mist, right; blue sky with red tones low on the horizon; brown and green foliage, left; lit from the left.

Signed bottom left on a stone: B Dandridge pt.

This may be the picture engraved by Faber junior in 1740 for his brother freemasons from the Original in the Possession of the Rt Homble William Harrington or the one noted by Vertue, March 1732: 'Mr. Dandridge Drew the picture of the Prince of Wales. has sat for it. 3 times at whole length. also is to draw him on horseback for Lord Barington. (which is done) the picture of the face which is yet only done is vastly like. and by ye Prince and others thought to be the most striking likeness yet done'. [1] No picture answering the description was sold in the property of Lord Harrington deceased, Christie's, 30-31 March 1781, [2] and there is no known sale of Barrington pictures. Nor is there any apparent connection of either peer with the Prince. No other version of NPG 1164 is reported. The attendant may be the same as in an equestrian portrait by Wootton at Drumlanrig Castle, formerly at Kinmount, [3] where an early or contemporary inscription identifies the figure as Thomas Bloodworth, the Prince's groom of the bedchamber, 1731-35. This would seem confirmed by the inscription on the version at Blaston, collection Colonel T.H. Lloyd. Bloodworth is also thought to appear in a sketch by Wootton at Windsor [4] but in the finished painting by this artist and Hogarth (Millar, 555, pl.205) the corresponding figure may in fact be Lord Boston. There are no single portraits of Boston. He appears, with his key of office, in Vanloo's painting of Augusta and her family (Millar, 538, pl.191). There is little resemblance, however, between this long-faced man and the second figure in NPG 1164.

Condition: pentimenti along the right outline of rider and horse; discoloured varnish; black horizontals around the bridge of the nose due perhaps to an old damage; minor retouchings, pin marks in corners; surface cleaned and varnished, 1898.

Collections: bought, 1898, from C.E. Hopgood & Co, an Acton dealer, by whom offered as George II.

Engraved: by Faber junior, 1740 (O'D 4).

2501 By Philip Mercier, c.1736 (?)
Oil on canvas, 48 3/4 x 39 1/2 in. (1263 x 1003 mm); greyish-blue prominent eyes, heavy lids, elongated near-white eyebrows, full crimson lips, a pimple low on his left cheek, short grey wig; white shirt with lace frill and cuffs, scarlet coat with gold brocade, Garter ribbon and star; in his right hand a gold-headed cane, golden sword at his side; under his left arm, black hat edged with white fur; blue sky with red low on the horizon, pale green foliage, left; lit from top left.

Signed in brown, faintly, on the base of the column in cursive, Ph. Mercier fecit.

An undated portrait of which no other versions are known. The Prince appointed Mercier painter, page of the bedchamber and librarian in 1728, having apparently last paid him as librarian in the year ending 1738. [5] The position as painter was discontinued by warrant dated 7 October 1736 when John Ellys became 'principal painter in the room of Philip Mercier Esq'. [6] The costume suggests the mid- or late 'thirties. A whole length by Mercier painted in 1728 was given by the Queen to Earl Grantham the following year. [7] It was one of a set with the Princesses Anne, Amelia and Caroline, the last signed and dated 1728, all presented in 1768 to the Shire Hall, Hertford, from the collection of the 3rd Earl Cowper at Panshanger. Although the head is in the same pose as NPG 2501, the face is much younger and thinner, close to the half length portrait of 1730 engraved by J. Simon (CS 65-66). An example is in the possession of Lord Brownlow and a copy, in the Royal Collection (Millar, 525). It is unlikely that NPG 2501 would have been painted without a sitting.

Condition: pentimenti along the top of his right arm and also, still visible in its earlier position, on his right hand which has been extended outwards by the width of his stick; fading or discolouration in the reds of the coat, especially in his right cuff; minor losses, bottom right; pin holes; the relining canvas is now rather dry; cleaned 1970.

Collections: received, 1931, by bequest from Miss Lillie B. Randell, 1925, together with portraits of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (NPG 2506), Duke of Newcastle (NPG 2504), George III (NPG 2502), George IV (NPG 2503), the last three discussed in subsequent volumes, and Lady Stapylton (NPG 2505); from the collection of the sitter's great-grandson the Duke of Cambridge; Christie's, 11 June 1904, lot 44, without artist's name.

Exhibited: 'Philip Mercier', Kenwood, 1969 (29).

Literature: W.G. Strickland, A . . . Catalogue of the Pictures . . . in Trinity College, Dublin, Dublin, 1916; J.W. Sherwell, The History of the Guild of Saddlers, 3rd edition, 1956; 0. Millar, 'Notes on the Royal Collection—I’, Burlington Magazine, CIII, 1961.

Iconography
The sitter is richly represented in the Royal collection and Millar, in a discussion of his patronage, gives a good account (pp.28-30). Portraits have sometimes been confused with those of the Young Pretender who has, however, a narrower chin and is usually shown wearing the Thistle as well as the Garter.

As a youth Frederick was frequently painted, in somewhat mechanical style, by German artists in Hanover. After his arrival in England, December 1728, portraits begin to reflect the livelier style of the artists he patronised which led, incidentally, to a genre new in royal portraiture, the conversation, and especially, the sporting group. In the latter, Wootton was his favourite. The main portraits are:

Hanoverian Period, before 1728, by:
(1) E. Paletta, signed, 1707, Gripsholm;
(2) Sir James Thornhill, Queen Anne's bedchamber, Hampton Court;
(3) R.A. Constantin, signed and dated 1716, Victoria and Albert Museum;
(4) Franken, [8] ad vivum, engraved by J. Faber junior from an Original Picture at St. James's (O'D 10), probably c.1716;
(5) an unknown artist, engraved by J. Simon, 1718, as from an Original Picture lately Brought from Hanover—an oil corresponding with the engraving is at the Welsh Girls' School, Ashford, Mddx;
(6) Martin Maingaud, c.1720, with the Princess Amelia (?)—as Zephyrus and Flora (Millar, 514);
(7) a portrait attri­buted to G.W. Fountain, 1723, Niedersächsisches Heimatsmuseum, Hanover, engraved by J. Smith, and a head very similar, Royal collection (Millar, 624);
(8) an unknown artist, with C. Kauffmann of Paris, 1930, three-quarter length—a portrait of high quality, the handling of the eyes, for example, being comparable to known works by Pesne, conceivably the picture recorded by Vertue as painted in 1724; [9]
(9) C. Boit, probably an enamel since this was his medium, engraved Vertue 1725;
(10) G. Hansson (of Cologne ?), [10] engraved by Van Werdlen with English lettering (O'D 13);
(11) Joachim Kayser, a Hanoverian painter, and Johan Anton Klyher, a Weimar court painter, 1727 (Millar, 517, pl.202), an equestrian portrait.

In England, 1728 and after, by:
(12) Mercier, engraved Simon (CS 64), second state as painted for Lord Grantham; [11]
(13) J. Davison, engraved J. Faber junior (CS 144) as after a painting of 1730, the fourth state giving the year 1739;
(14)Mercier, half length, collection Lord Brownlow;
(15) Dandridge (NPG 1164, see above) and an unrelated whole length, in robes of state, formerly at Woburn, Christie's, 19 June 1951, lot 90; a signed and dated Dandridge of 1732, Zetland collection, exhibited as Frederick at Bowes Museum, 1962, no. 19, seems wrongly named on comparison with authentic portraits; [12]
(16) Zincke, a miniature of 1732 recorded by Vertue, [13] whereabouts now unknown, and a version at Christie's, 28 June 1966, lot 245, from the collection of the Princess Royal;
(17) Amigoni, payment received in 1736 for portraits painted the previous year—a three-quarter length, Buckingham Palace (Millar, 526), and whole lengths at Easton Neston, Lord Hesketh, and Raby Castle, Lord Barnard;
(18) Herman Van der Myn, payment of £63 recorded September 1735 [14] and reference to a 'recent' sitting in a newspaper report of April 1734; [15]
(19) Mercier (NPG 2501 see above) of c.1736-38;
(20) Ellys, c.1735-45, engraved by J. Faber junior (CS 145); this does not correspond with the painting at Windsor Castle (530) by Ellys which Millar associates with a payment made in 1744; the latter may represent Cumberland rather than Frederick; [16]
(21) Richardson, whole length, signed and dated 1736, Warwick Castle, and a drawing, dated 1736, in the British Museum;
(22) attributed to Hogarth, a pair with the Princess, Windsor Castle (Millar, 562-63), painted soon after the Prince's marriage, April 1736; [17]
(23) Thomas Frye, half length (Millar, 543), and a corresponding whole length formerly in the Saddlers' Hall, destroyed 1940, engraved by the artist, 1741, and lettered as painted in that year—the portrait may be earlier, dating from the Prince's visit to the Hall in 1736 when he gave permission to the Guild of Saddlers to 'have his picture'; [18]
(24) C. Philips, pair with the Princess, the latter signed and dated 1737 (Millar, 531);
(25) Davison, whole length, pair with the Princess, sent to Richard Nash at Bath, 1740, [19] very close to the Richardson portrait of 1736;
(26) attributed to Largillière, a good pastel of c.1740 [20] perhaps by Knapton, a painter in favour with the Prince [21] (cp Millar, 626, of c.1735);
(27) Vanloo, a pair with the Princess, signed and dated 1742 (Millar, 535), and another version, also signed and dated 1742, at Boconnoc;
(28) Stephen Slaughter, a portrait begun in 1742 and mentioned by Vertue; [22]
(29) Highmore, who certainly painted a portrait in 1742, formerly attributed to Vanloo (Millar, 519), and a version at Celle, Germany; [23]
(30) Rudolf Studer, payment of £64. 2s received for a whole length in 1749; [24]
(31) Du Pan, sittings 1745, [25] possibly identical with the whole length attributed to Ramsay, in the Ulster Museum, formerly in the collection of Sir Cecil Stafford-King-Harman; [26] a half length version attributed to Du Pan was at Sotheby's, 13 July 1966, lot 295, and again 22 November 1967, lot 32;
(32) Hudson, a whole length, Trinity College, Dublin, signed and dated, offered as a gift from the Prince, 1745, received 1748, [27] and another, pair with the Princess, at Cliveden, engraved by J. Faber junior 1751 (CS 146) lettered as painted ad vivum 1750;
(33) attributed to Morier, c.1750, an equestrian portrait at Windsor Castle (Millar, 595);
(34) ascribed to Reynolds, a half length formerly at Bramshill, collection Lord Brocket, Sotheby's 16 July 1952, lot 89, and although not by Reynolds, one probably by his hand said to have been painted for Sir George Lee and sent by him to Hartwell appeared in the Hartwell House sale, 26 April 1938, lot 58; the portrait attributed to Reynolds is closely related to:
(35) by Liotard, a posthumous pastel c.1754-55 (Millar, 579) completing the set of Augusta and her family which, in turn, relates to:
(36) attributed to David Lüders (Millar, 628) inscribed, or possibly signed, on the back Luders fecit. Lüders, born in Hamburg c.1710 (d.1759), studied in Paris under Lemoyne and worked in Italy, England and Russia.

SCULPTURE
Examples are rare. A fine bust at Windsor, attributed to Scheemakers was sold by the 5th Earl Temple, Sotheby's, 9 May 1941, lot 65; it was then accompanied by lot 66, a signed Scheemakers of Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham. Both may have been from the Temple of Friendship at Stowe. [28] A later wax medallion by Gosset is in the Royal collection. [29] Dassier's fine medal dates from 1729 [30] and a wax c.1735 by J.S. Tanner, then working in the mint, was much commended by Vertue and others. [31]

GROUPS, by:
(I) Charles Philips, with the 'Knights of the Round Table', signed and dated 1732 (Millar, 533);
(2) Mercier, 'The Music Party', 1733 (NPG 1556, see Groups);
(3) Wootton, accompanied by Thomas Bloodworth, riding, probably 1731-35 when Bloodworth was groom of the bedchamber (see NPG 1164, above);
(4) Wootton and Hogarth, in the hunting field (Millar, 555), signed and dated Wootton 1734—a bill records: 'To Mr Hogarth for painting Six Faces in the Picture at 5 Guineas Each Face'; [32]
(5) Wootton, 'The Death of the Stag', signed and dated 1737 (Millar, 545);
(6) Wootton, 'The Return from the Chase', also signed and dated 1737 (Millar, 546);
(7) Wootton, the Prince with John Spencer and Charles Douglas, 3rd Duke of Queensberry in the Home Park at Windsor, versions in the Royal collection, signed and dated 1740 (Millar, 547) and at Drumlanrig;
(8) Wootton, 'The Riding Lesson', probably painted 1750, depicting Sir Philip Medows with two Princes, traditionally Frederick and Cumberland but almost certainly Frederick's eldest son George, later George III, and Edward, Duke of York. [33]

Notes
1. Vertue, III, p.57; 'Barington' (sic) in the MS refers presumably to John, 1st Viscount Barrington (1678-1734).
2. Lugt, I, 3244; this would be William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Harrington, 1719-79.
3. Drumlanrig catalogue, 1909 (7).
4. Oppé, pp.104-05 (691), pl.104.
5. Millar, p.74.
6. Cited 'Mercier', Kenwood, 1969, p.11 and note 6.
7. Information J. Ingamells.
8. Possibly C.A.V. Franken; see Thieme-Becker, XII, p.339.
9. Vertue, III, p.20, meaning perhaps that Pesne's was a whole length.
10. Thieme-Becker, XVI, p.14.
11. See discussion under NPG 2501, above.
12. SSB LXXVI, p.45a; LXXXIV, p.15.
13. Vertue, III, p.58.
14. Millar, p.28, note 84.
15. Vertue, III, p.69.
16. Millar, p.76.
17. Ibid, p.186.
18. Sherwell, pp.93-94.
19. Millar, p.29, note 85.
20. Connoisseur, 1905, reproduced p.52.
2I. Vertue, I, pp.12-13; p.154.
22. Ibid, III, pp.88, 111.
23. Millar, p.174; Exh. ‘Highmore', Kenwood, 1963 (13).
24. Millar, p.28, note 84.
25. Ibid, p.29.
26. Exh. 'Kings & Queens', RA, 1953 (235).
27. Strickland, Catalogue . . . Dublin, p.53.
28. Vertue, III, p.133.
29. Ibid, p.160; exh. 'Kings & Queens', RA, 1953 (236).
30. Forrer, p.517.
31. Vertue, III, p.76.
32. Millar, p.583.
33. Collection, Duke of Wellington; exh. 'Pictures from Hampshire Houses', Winchester and Southampton, 1955 (78).