National stereotypes

Gillray made extensive use of national stereotypes, as have humorists of all types before and since. His John Bull is often not the symbol of English national pride familiar from the late nineteenth and twentieth century, but a stolid and sometimes unintelligent man, easily taken advantage of by politicians. Opening of the budget; - or - John Bull giving his breeches to save his bacon (D12583), for example, refers to the tax demands placed on John Bull due to the war with France. Gillray was unafraid of targeting fellow Britons: his Sawney in the bog-house (D12978) is a particularly unpleasant image of the stereotyped uncouth Scot; and he also had an established cast of characters to represent European foreigners.

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'The Bengal levee'
by and published by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 9 November 1792
NPG D13079

'Blue and buff charity; - or - the patriarch of the Greek clergy applying for relief'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 12 June 1793
NPG D13081

'A new Dutch exercise'
by Isaac Cruikshank, published by Samuel William Fores
published 1 April 1795
NPG D13082

'The contrast, or things as they are'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 12 November 1796
NPG D13084

'Titianus Redivivus; - or - the seven-wise-men consulting the new Venetian oracle'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 2 November 1797
NPG D13085

'Consequences of a successful French invasion, No 1, plate 1st'
by and published by James Gillray
published 1 March 1798
NPG D13086

'Consequences of a successful French invasion, No 1, plate 2d'
by and published by James Gillray
published 1 March 1798
NPG D13087

'Consequences of a successful French invasion, No VI, plate 1st'
by and published by James Gillray
published 6 March 1798
NPG D13089

Louis Lazare Hoche ('The apotheosis of Hoche')
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 11 January? 1798
NPG D13090

'Design for the naval pillar'; Britannia
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 1 February 1800
NPG D13097

'Dilettanti-theatricals: - or - a peep at the green room'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 18 February 1803
NPG D13099

Napoléon Bonaparte ('French invasion - or - Buonaparte landing in Great Britain')
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 10 June 1803
NPG D13100

Napoléon Bonaparte ('The Corsican-pest; - or - Belzebub going to supper')
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 6 October 1803
NPG D13102

'French volunteers marching to the conquest of Great Britain'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 25 October 1803
NPG D13103

'The King of Brobdingnag and Gulliver'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 10 February 1804
NPG D13104

'A morning ride' (King George IV; Sir John McMahon, 1st Bt)
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 25 February 1804
NPG D13105

storming Heaven; - with, the gods alarmed for their everlasting-abodes'
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
published 1 May 1804
NPG D13106

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