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Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

(1768-1821), Queen of George IV

Sitter in 94 portraits
Married George, Prince of Wales in 1795 but he was already secretly married to Mrs Fitzherbert. He abandoned her after the birth of their daughter Princess Charlotte. Caroline repaid her husband by leading a life of bawdy behaviour, travelling to Tunis and Constantinople. Following her husband's accession as King George IV, she claimed her rights as Queen in 1820. A Cabinet including Lords Liverpool, Sidmouth, and Castlereagh immediately launched Parliamentary proceedings against her for adultery. In July 1821 she was refused entry to George IV's coronation and died a fortnight later of shock. Her body was shipped back to Brunswick, her birthplace.

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Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by Sir Thomas Lawrence - NPG 244

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by Sir Thomas Lawrence
oil on canvas, 1804
On display in Room 17 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 244

The Trial of Queen Caroline 1820, by Sir George Hayter - NPG 999

The Trial of Queen Caroline 1820

by Sir George Hayter
oil on canvas, 1820-1823
On display in Room 17 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 999

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, after Unknown artist - NPG D9141

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

after Unknown artist
mezzotint, published 24 February 1795
NPG D9141

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by John Murphy, published by  John Jeffryes, after  Thomas Stothard - NPG D33364

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by John Murphy, published by John Jeffryes, after Thomas Stothard
mezzotint, published 21 May 1795
NPG D33364

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by James Tookey, probably after  Friedrich Schroeder - NPG D10849

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by James Tookey, probably after Friedrich Schroeder
line engraving, published 1795
NPG D10849

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by James Tookey, probably after  Friedrich Schroeder - NPG D10850

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by James Tookey, probably after Friedrich Schroeder
line engraving, published 1795
NPG D10850

'The lover's dream', by James Gillray, published by  Hannah Humphrey - NPG D12515

'The lover's dream'

by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
hand-coloured etching and aquatint, published 24 January 1795
NPG D12515

'The Jersey smuggler detected; - or - good cause for (separation) discontent', by James Gillray, published by  Hannah Humphrey - NPG D13023

'The Jersey smuggler detected; - or - good cause for (separation) discontent'

by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
hand-coloured etching, published 24 May 1796
NPG D13023

'The bridal night', by James Gillray, published by  Hannah Humphrey - NPG D12613

'The bridal night'

by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
hand-coloured etching, engraving and aquatint, published 18 May 1797
NPG D12613

King George IV; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by Michael Sloane, published by  Luigi Schiavonetti, after  Richard Cosway - NPG D20038

King George IV; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by Michael Sloane, published by Luigi Schiavonetti, after Richard Cosway
stipple engraving, published 12 April 1797
NPG D20038

Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by Francesco Bartolozzi, after  Richard Cosway - NPG D10848

Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by Francesco Bartolozzi, after Richard Cosway
stipple engraving, published 1799
NPG D10848

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, after Unknown artist - NPG D8091

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

after Unknown artist
hand-coloured stipple engraving, early 19th century
NPG D8091

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, after Unknown artist - NPG D8093

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

after Unknown artist
coloured engraving, early 19th century
NPG D8093

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by Marie Anne Bourlier, published by  Edward Harding, after  Sir William Beechey - NPG D33360

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by Marie Anne Bourlier, published by Edward Harding, after Sir William Beechey
stipple engraving, published 19 May 1806
NPG D33360

R-y-l Condescension - or a Foreign Minister astonished! - April 1817, by George Cruikshank, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17897

R-y-l Condescension - or a Foreign Minister astonished! - April 1817

by George Cruikshank, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 15 September 1817
NPG D17897

A R-Y-L Visit to a Foreign Capital or, The Ambassador not at home - !! - April 1817, by George Cruikshank, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17899

A R-Y-L Visit to a Foreign Capital or, The Ambassador not at home - !! - April 1817

by George Cruikshank, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 15 September 1817
NPG D17899

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by and published by Henry Meyer, after  James Lonsdale - NPG D33361

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by and published by Henry Meyer, after James Lonsdale
stipple and line engraving, published 27 November 1820
NPG D33361

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by and published by Henry Meyer, after  James Lonsdale - NPG D33362

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by and published by Henry Meyer, after James Lonsdale
stipple and line engraving, published 27 November 1820
NPG D33362

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by Robert Cooper, after  Abraham Wivell - NPG D33363

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by Robert Cooper, after Abraham Wivell
stipple engraving, published 1820
NPG D33363

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by and published by Richard Dighton - NPG D10809

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by and published by Richard Dighton
etching, published 1820
NPG D10809

Characters in the New Piece Now Performing at the Theatre Royal Cotten Garden 1820, published by John Marshall Jr - NPG D46025a

Characters in the New Piece Now Performing at the Theatre Royal Cotten Garden 1820

published by John Marshall Jr
hand-coloured etching, published 6 November 1820
NPG D46025a

The Broken Crown or, The Disasters of a Green-Bag Chief!!!, by (Isaac) Robert Cruikshank, published by  Orlando Hodgson - NPG D46037

The Broken Crown or, The Disasters of a Green-Bag Chief!!!

by (Isaac) Robert Cruikshank, published by Orlando Hodgson
hand-coloured etching and letterpress, circa November-December 1820
NPG D46037

All a Bottle of Smoke!! or John Bull and the Secret Committee, published by John Fairburn - NPG D46058

All a Bottle of Smoke!! or John Bull and the Secret Committee

published by John Fairburn
hand-coloured etching, published July 1820
NPG D46058

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick, by and published by William Say, after  Arthur William Devis - NPG D11321

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick

by and published by William Say, after Arthur William Devis
mezzotint, published 1820
NPG D11321

Steward's Court of the Manor of Torre Devon, attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17911

Steward's Court of the Manor of Torre Devon

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published December 1820
NPG D17911

The Saint! (Bartolomeo Pergami; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick), attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17912a

The Saint! (Bartolomeo Pergami; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick)

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 9 December 1820
NPG D17912a

A late Arrival at Mother Wood's (Sir Matthew Wood, 1st Bt; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick), possibly by (Isaac) Robert Cruikshank, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17921

A late Arrival at Mother Wood's (Sir Matthew Wood, 1st Bt; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick)

possibly by (Isaac) Robert Cruikshank, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 19 June 1820
NPG D17921

The Time Piece! & Cunning Jack o' both sides, possibly by (Isaac) Robert Cruikshank, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17928

The Time Piece! & Cunning Jack o' both sides

possibly by (Isaac) Robert Cruikshank, published by George Humphrey
etching, published June 1820
NPG D17928

A Wooden Substitute, or Any Port in a Storm, attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D10847

A Wooden Substitute, or Any Port in a Storm

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
coloured etching, published 19 January 1821
NPG D10847

The Man of the Woods & the Cat-o'-mountain (Sir Matthew Wood, Bt; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick), attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D8094

The Man of the Woods & the Cat-o'-mountain (Sir Matthew Wood, Bt; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick)

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
hand-coloured etching, published 27 March 1821
NPG D8094

'Tent-ation.' (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick; Bartolomeo Pergami), attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17898a

'Tent-ation.' (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick; Bartolomeo Pergami)

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 25 June 1821
NPG D17898a

Grand Entrance to Bamboozl'em, attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17900

Grand Entrance to Bamboozl'em

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published February 1821
NPG D17900

The Royal Extinguisher, or the King of Brobdingnag & the Lilliputians, by George Cruikshank, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17902

The Royal Extinguisher, or the King of Brobdingnag & the Lilliputians

by George Cruikshank, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 7 April 1821
NPG D17902

An Arm-Full of Love (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick; Bartolomeo Pergami), attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17903a

An Arm-Full of Love (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick; Bartolomeo Pergami)

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 30 April 1821
NPG D17903a

Returning Justice lifts aloft her Scale, attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17904a

Returning Justice lifts aloft her Scale

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 1 June 1821
NPG D17904a

Mother Cole (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick; Sir Matthew Wood, 1st Bt), attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17903b

Mother Cole (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick; Sir Matthew Wood, 1st Bt)

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 26 July 1821
NPG D17903b

A parting Hug at St Omer!, attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17904b

A parting Hug at St Omer!

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 1 June 1821
NPG D17904b

Lucifera's Procession.  Fairy-Queen, attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17905

Lucifera's Procession. Fairy-Queen

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 12 May 1821
NPG D17905

A Wooden Substitute, or Any Port in a Storm, attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17906a

A Wooden Substitute, or Any Port in a Storm

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 19 January 1821
NPG D17906a

The Choice of Hercules (Bartolomeo Pergami; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick), attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17906b

The Choice of Hercules (Bartolomeo Pergami; Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick)

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 24 May 1821
NPG D17906b

Design for a New Coat of Arms.  Dedicated to Mothers Wood, Windsor & Co. & all the Fancy Queens., attributed to Theodore Lane, published by  George Humphrey - NPG D17907a

Design for a New Coat of Arms. Dedicated to Mothers Wood, Windsor & Co. & all the Fancy Queens.

attributed to Theodore Lane, published by George Humphrey
etching, published 1 May 1821
NPG D17907a

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