King Henry III (1207-1272), Reigned 1216-72
Sitter associated with 33 portraits
Henry was only nine years old when his father John I died and his minority accentuated ongoing nationwide rebellion. After his accession to the throne in 1234, Henry's favouritism and arrogance prompted his barons to insist on a series of major reforms, the Provisions of Oxford (1258), which created a permanent Privy Council to advise the king and ensured regular Parliaments. Civil War ensued as the settlement broke down and Henry was briefly deposed. In his final years, when relative peace had been restored, he began the construction of Westminster Abbey as it stands today.