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Edward Charles Howard (1774-1816), Scientist and sugar refiner

Sitter in 3 portraits
A notable chemist of the early nineteenth century, Howard made original discoveries in three widely different fields of chemical research. In 1800, he discovered the highly explosive fulminates, an achievement that gained him the coveted Copley Medal of the Royal Society. He next demonstrated the characteristic nickel content of meteorites, thus helping to establish their cosmic origin. Over the next few years he contributed significantly to the revolution in sugar manufacturing by his invention of the vacuum evaporation technique and other fundamental improvements.

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