Prince James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766), Known as 'The Old Pretender'; son of James II
Sitter associated with 59 portraits
The only son of James II and Mary of Modena, he was raised in exile in France after his father was deposed in 1688 in favour of the Protestant William of Orange. Known as the 'Old Pretender', he became the focus of Jacobite resistance and mounted several unsuccessful campaigns to reclaim the throne in 1706, 1708 and finally in 1715 when he landed at Peterhead in Scotland. He married the Polish Princess Maria Clementina Sobieska in 1719 and spent much of the remainder of his life in exile in Rome, where he drank himself to death.