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Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

(1640-1709), Mistress of Charles II

Sitter in 33 portraits
The favourite mistress of Charles II during the 1660s, Barbara Villiers was a dominant presence both at court and in the public's imagination. She married Roger Palmer, later the Earl of Castlemaine, in 1659, and met Charles soon after. Appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to the Queen in spite of the latter's protests, she bore the King at least five children. She became a Catholic in 1663, dabbled in politics, and was implicated in the fall of Clarendon. She was made a Duchess in her own right in 1670, when her influence with the King was beginning to wane.

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Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, after Sir Peter Lely - NPG 387

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

after Sir Peter Lely
oil on canvas, (circa 1666)
On display at Gawthorpe Hall, Burnley Exhibition Room
NPG 387

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt - NPG 427

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
oil on canvas, (circa 1705)
NPG 427

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, after William Faithorne, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D20389

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

after William Faithorne, after Sir Peter Lely
ink and wash, circa 1660-1680
NPG D20389

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by William Faithorne, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D22670

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by William Faithorne, after Sir Peter Lely
line engraving, 1666
NPG D22670

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, published by Richard Tompson, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D1471

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

published by Richard Tompson, after Sir Peter Lely
mezzotint, 1678-1679
NPG D1471

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, published by Richard Tompson, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D20377

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

published by Richard Tompson, after Sir Peter Lely
mezzotint, 1678-1679
NPG D20377

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by Robert Williams, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D21365

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by Robert Williams, after Sir Peter Lely
mezzotint, late 17th century
NPG D21365

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, published by Alexander Browne, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D11405

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

published by Alexander Browne, after Sir Peter Lely
mezzotint, circa 1680-4
NPG D11405

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by Robert Williams, published by  Edward Cooper, after  William Wissing - NPG D15199

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by Robert Williams, published by Edward Cooper, after William Wissing
mezzotint, (circa 1680-1687)
NPG D15199

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by and published by Isaac Beckett, after  Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt - NPG D30496

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by and published by Isaac Beckett, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
mezzotint, circa 1681-1688
NPG D30496

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by and published by Isaac Beckett, after  Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt - NPG D1472

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by and published by Isaac Beckett, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
mezzotint, circa 1681-1688
NPG D1472

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by Isaac Beckett, published by  John Smith, after  Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt - NPG D1473

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by Isaac Beckett, published by John Smith, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
mezzotint, circa 1681-1688
NPG D1473

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by Isaac Beckett, published by  John Smith, after  Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt - NPG D1474

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by Isaac Beckett, published by John Smith, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
mezzotint, circa 1681-1688
NPG D1474

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by Isaac Beckett, published by  John Smith, after  Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt - NPG D11617

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by Isaac Beckett, published by John Smith, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
mezzotint, circa 1681-1688
NPG D11617

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by Isaac Beckett, published by  John Smith, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D11940

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by Isaac Beckett, published by John Smith, after Sir Peter Lely
mezzotint, 1681-1688
NPG D11940

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland, by Robert Williams, sold by  Bispham Dickinson, published by  John Smith, after  Sir Peter Lely - NPG D30501

Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland

by Robert Williams, sold by Bispham Dickinson, published by John Smith, after Sir Peter Lely
mezzotint, 1730s
NPG D30501

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