Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

John Ruskin (1819-1900), Writer, artist and social reformer

Self-portraits
Possible self-portraits
By other artists
Posthumous portraits
Photographs

All known portraits of Ruskin up to 1999 are itemized in James Dearden, John Ruskin: A Life in Pictures (Dearden 1999), which is currently (2011) being updated. Including posthumous and fanciful portraits, they number around 330. With one or two exceptions, the iconography here includes only those executed in Ruskin’s lifetime or shortly afterwards. Our thanks to Professors James Dearden and Stephen Wildman for advice and assistance.


Self-portraitsback to top



1861
Watercolour over pencil drawing, 159 x 144mm, inscr. ‘John Ruskin – by himself – given by him to me J[oan] R. S[evern]’, head-and-shoulders to right, eyes forwards; Morgan L&M, New York, 1959.22. Exh. Ruskin Memorial Exh., RWS, London, 1901 (404); Ruskin, Manchester, 1904 (363); Coniston and London 1919; and elsewhere, including Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (229); ref. Dearden 1999, no.58 (repr. pl.13, discussed p.61); repr. as chromolithograph Collingwood 1893, frontispiece; Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.177; print BM, London (ref. O’Donoghue 1908–22, vol.3, p.581, no.11). The circulation of the chromolithographic reproduction as an original has ‘caused the most trouble’, according to Dearden 1999, p.3.
One copy in watercolour, probably by W.G. Collingwood; Ruskin M., Coniston, 1989.602. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.60.
One copy in pencil, 254 x 203mm, by W.H. Caffyn; priv. coll. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.59.

Sketch, Mar. 1861, lips only; Morgan L&M, New York, MA 2159. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.54 (repr. fig.2).

c.1866
Pen and ink drawing, 184 x152mm, head, full-face; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF1507. Exh. Arts Council, 1960 (26); Ruskin and His Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (35); Verona 1966 (80); London 1969 (9); and elsewhere; ref. Dearden 1999, no.79 (repr. p.73).

1873
Watercolour, 355 x 254mm, Jan. 1873, inscr. ‘Di Pa by himself’ by Joan Severn, head, full-face; Morgan L&M, New York, 1959.23. Exh. Ruskin and His Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (34); British Landscape Drawings..., Brussels, 1994 (95); and Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (234); ref. Dearden 1999, no.114 (repr. pl.17); also repr. Casteras et al. 1993, frontispiece.

1874
Pencil drawing, 254 x 203mm, spring 1874, inscr. ‘J.Ruskin (se ipsum) del’ by Charles Eliot Norton; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF991. Exh. London, 1919 (319); Ruskin and His Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (35); Verona, 1966 (81); Lancaster, 1979 (46); Arts Council, 1983 (4); Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (236); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.27; and Dearden 1999, no.116 (repr. p.93); also repr. Dearden 1960, p.193, fig.7.

Watercolour, 375 x 248mm, head, full-face; coll. Wellesley College, MA. Exh. in memory of Charles Eliot Norton, Harvard, 1909; Salander-O’Reilly, New York, 1996 (24); and Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (238); ref. Dearden 1999, no.117 (repr. pl.18); also repr. Casteras et al. 1993, fig.77.

1881
Pen and ink drawing on letterhead, 114 x 178mm, 15 Sept. 1881, whole-length, silhouette figure with ten others; coll. Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF B XIX. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.161 (repr. p.127).


Possible self-portraitsback to top


1874
Watercolour and pencil drawing, 467 x 590mm, sketched in Santa Croce, Assisi, June 1875, inscr. ‘JR. Assisi, 1874 to C.E.N, 1st Jul.83’, own face on copy of fresco of St Francis; coll. R.D. Benjamin. Exh. Grolier Club, New York, 1978 (53); ref. Dearden 1999, no.120 (repr. pl.19). According to Dearden 1999, p.97, this was not intended as a self-portrait, but does bear resemblance to Ruskin, who felt ‘a particular affinity’ with St Francis.

c.1875
Watercolour and bodycolour, 476 x 311mm, inscr. verso ‘John Ruskin: s.m. circa 1875 aet 56’, head-and-shoulders, to front; Oppe Coll., Tate, T10251. Exh. Ruskin and Venice, Louisville, 1978 (85); Venezia nell’ottocento, Venice, 1983 (108); Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (245); The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); and The Poetry of Drawing, Birmingham MAG and AG of New S Wales, Sydney, 2011 (92); ref. Dearden 1999, no.132; repr. Hewison, Warrell & Wildman 2000, p.265 and Cruise 2011, p.110, fig.137. Formerly thought to be by Fairfax Murray; see Dearden 1999, pp.106–7 for discussion of attribution.


By other artistsback to top


1822
Oil on linen by James Northcote; see NPG 5973.

c.1822
Black paper silhouette by unidentified artist, inscr. ‘Di Pa as a child, certified by himself’, whole-length, in petticoats and sunhat, with dog; Morgan L&M, New York, 1974.49. Exh. Ruskin and His Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (26); and Queens College, New York, 1965, IV/1; ref. Dearden 1999, no.4 (repr. p.25).

1823
Oil on canvas, 1270 x 1016mm, by James Northcote, The Sylvan Doctor, whole-length in fancy portrait as naked child with satyr and sheep; untraced; Sotheby’s, 20 May 1931. Exh. Coniston, 1919 (3); and London, 1919 (94); ref. Dearden 1999, no.5 (repr. p.26); also repr. Spielmann 1891b, p.74; Spielmann 1900a, p.23; and Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.171.
A reduced-size watercolour copy by Arthur Severn or W.G. Collingwood, inscr. ‘The Thorn in the Foot’; Ruskin M., Coniston.

1836
Miniature watercolour by Alfred Edward Chalon, head only; priv. coll. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.8 (repr. pl.3). No documentation supports the identification and the object first surfaced in 1950.

1841
Cameo in pink and white shell by Constantin Roesler Franz, executed in Rome, head, profile to left; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF721. Exh. Coniston, 1919 (225); London, 1919 (15); Ruskin and his Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (27); Artists’ Jewellery: Pre-Raphaelite to Arts and Crafts, Wartski & Co., London, 1989 (166); Ruskin and Tuscany, London, Sheffield and Lucca, 1993 (1); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.25, pl.xiiia and vol.36, no.3; Dearden 1960, p.191; and Dearden 1999, no.10 (repr. pl.4).
Two other copies, also by Franz, and a preliminary chalk sketch dated 5 Jan., are recorded, together with metal copies produced in the 1930s by the Mikimoto Company, Japan; ref. Dearden 1999, nos 9, 11, 12, 13.

c.1841
Oil on canvas, 336 x 260mm, by Thomas Richmond, three-quarter-length, standing to left, wearing cut-away coat, holding gloves and with top hat and cane alongside; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF421. Exh. Ruskin in Love, London, 9 Upper Belgrave St, 1976 and Brantwood, Coniston, 1978 (9); Bembridge 1987 (1); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.4; and Dearden 1999, no.14 (repr. pl.5). Although this work was never in Ruskin family possession, it is accepted as a portrait of John Ruskin.

1843
Watercolour, 698 x 444mm, by George Richmond, Feb. 1843, whole-length, seated beside desk, landscape background; untraced, presumed destroyed by fire, 1941. Exh. RA 1843 (1061); Coniston, 1900 (75); RWS, London, 1901 (325); FAS, London, 1907 (99); Coniston, 1919 (44); and London, 1919 (70); ref. Dearden 1999, no.15 (repr. from vintage photograph p.31; and engr. fig.12); also repr. Spielmann 1891b, p.76; Spielmann 1900a, p.45 (where dated to 1842); Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.175; and elsewhere.
Photogravure (c.1890); Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation RF813. Exh. John Ruskin and the Victorian Eye, Phoenix AM, 1993 (43); Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (43); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); repr. British Art Journal, vol.13, no.1 2012, p.54. .
Related sketches of hands and legs with Agnew’s, London, 2001.

c.1843
Miniature on ivory, oval, by unidentified artist, head-and-shoulders; coll. Guild of St George, Sheffield. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.16 (repr. p.33); also repr. Spielmann 1891b, p.76.

1845
Oil on paper laid on panel, 254 x 381mm, by J.-L.-R. Durheim, executed in Florence, head-and-shoulders, in centre between two other men; Berner Kunstmuseum. Exh. Ruskin and Tuscany, London, Sheffield and Lucca, 1993 (14, ill.); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.17 (repr. pl.6).

c.1846
Black paper silhouette, 114 x 76mm, by unidentified artist, inscr. ‘J.Ruskin’, head-and-shoulders, profile to left, wearing hat and spectacles; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF30. Exh. John Ruskin and the Alps, Basle, Schaffhausen, Lucerne, Sion, Aix-les-Bains, Turin and FAS, London, 1988–91 (105); Ruskin and Tuscany, London, Sheffield and Lucca, 1993 (41); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000; ref. Dearden 1999, no.18 (repr. p.35); also repr. Dearden 1988–91, no.105.
A second black paper silhouette, from around the same date, shows Ruskin in profile without glasses; priv. coll.

1853
Pencil sketch, 470 x 305mm, by John Everett Millais, whole-length, from rear, standing in gondola with wife (not drawn in Venice); Ashmolean M., Oxford, WA1965.85.11. Exh. Ruskin and Venice, Louisville, 1978 (51); ref. Dearden 1999, no.19 (repr. p.36); also repr. Apollo, Mar. 1968, p.192.

Pencil and brown wash, 336 x 260mm, by John Everett Millais, drawn at Wallington, Northumberland, 22 June 1853, signed and dated 1853, head-and-shoulders, half-profile to left; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF356. Exh. Millais Portraits, NPG, London, 1999 (14, ill.); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.20 with full history (repr. pl.7); also repr. Dearden 1960, p.191, fig.2. Although not certainly a study for Millais’s oil portrait of 1854 listed below, this may be considered in relation to that work.

Thumbnail sketch by William Millais, Crossing the Border, 30 June 1853, head-and-shoulders, wearing top hat, leaning from coach; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.21 (repr. p.37); repr. Millais 1899, vol.1, p.195; and Lutyens 1967, p.53.

Pen and ink sketches by John Everett Millais during visit to Scotland, July 1853:
(a) 9 July 1853, whole-length, standing in burn, with William Millais; Bolton MAG. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.22 (repr. p.38).
(b) ‘Ascent of Ben Ledi’, 10 July 1854, half-length, from rear with other figures; priv. coll. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.23 (repr. p.38).
(c) ‘A wet day’s pastime’, 25 July 1853, whole-length, to right, playing shuttlecock with William Millais and others; Athenaeum Club, London. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.24 (repr. p.39).
(d) ‘Cruel Treatment of a Master to his Pupil’, 31 July 1853, whole-length, standing, wrapped in plaid, with wife and John Everett Millais; coll. Sir Geoffroy Millais. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.29 (repr. p.41).
(e) ‘Awey-ye goo’, 31 July 1853, whole-length, from rear, walking with other figures; priv. coll. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.30 (repr. p.41).
(f) ‘Kirk’, 31 July 1853, whole-length, seated in church with hymnbook; Tate, N04278. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.31 (repr. p.41).
(g) ‘The Scottish Bog exercise’, whole-length, from rear, holding ghillie; coll. Sir Geoffroy Millais. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.33 (repr. p.42).
(h) ‘Getting Mama up a ben’, half-length, to right, hauling fat woman uphill, with other figures; coll. Sir Geoffroy Millais. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.39 (repr. p.42).

1854
Pencil drawing with some watercolour by John Everett Millais, signed and dated 17 Jan. 1854, head, half-profile to left; Morgan L&M, New York, 1974.49.3. Exh. Millais Portraits, NPG, London, 1999 (28, ill.); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.35 (repr. p.44 and pl.10).

Oil on canvas, 787 x 680mm, by John Everett Millais, signed and dated 1854, whole-length, near profile to left, standing by waterfall at Glenfinlas, Perthshire, wearing frock coat, holding hat and stick (figure painted in London); priv. coll. Exh. FAS, London, 1884; Grosvenor G., London, 1886 (12); Birmingham MAG, 1891 (231); Millais Memorial Exh., RA, London, 1898 (55); British Portraits, RA, London, 1956–7 (440); Millais, RA, London, 1967 (420); The Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, London, 1984 (56); and elsewhere, incl. Millais: Portraits, NPG, London, 1999 (23, ill.); Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (1); The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); and Millais, Tate, 2007 (38); ref. Grieve 1996; and Dearden 1999, no.26, with full history (repr. pl.8); also repr. Spielmann 1900a, p.59; Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.12, frontispiece; and Bookman, Dec. 1914, p.107.
Photogravure repr. by Boussod Valadon & Co..
Unpublished engr. by George Allen; priv. coll.
This is the premier portrait of Ruskin from the period of his association with members of the PRB, with a dramatic biographical context.

Pencil sketch by John Everett Millais, dated 28 July 1853 by Henry Wentworth Acland, whole-length, standing before rocks, closely related to painting above; Ashmolean M., Oxford, WA1965.85.8. Exh. Millais Portraits, NPG, London, 1999 (24, ill.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.25 (repr. p.39).

c.1856
Pencil drawing, oval, possibly by Henry Swan, head-and-shoulders, looking down, chin resting on right hand; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.39 (repr. p.48).

Pencil sketch, 178 x 102mm, by W.J. Hodgson, inscr. ‘J.R. and his followers…’, whole-length thumbnail figure, profile to left, leading four other males carrying sketchbooks; William Morris G., Walthamstow, London, D414. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.40 (repr. p.49).

1857
Coloured chalks drawing on paper by George Richmond, signed and dated, head-and-shoulders, to front, left hand to head; destroyed by fire 1941. Exh. RA 1857 (737); Coniston, 1919 (103); and London, 1919 (59); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.13; and Dearden 1999, no.43 (repr. p.50); engr. by Francis Holl, issued 15 June 1858 (NPG D33440) repr. Ruskin 1861, frontispiece; Spielmann 1891b, p.77; Spielmann 1900a, p.79; and Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.16, frontispiece. A photograph of the original; South London AG.
Associated chalk drawing on paper; see NPG 1058.
Other studies listed and repr. Dearden 1999, nos 41, 42; exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. nos).

Zincotype caricature, 446 x 490mm, by (Anthony) Frederick Augustus Sandys, A Nightmare, based on Millais’s painting Sir Isumbras (A Dream of the Past), 1857, as the donkey, with ‘JR’ stamped on its rump, being ridden by Hunt, Millais and Rossetti (but unlike these three, Ruskin’s features are not shown); publ. by Smith & Elder, 4 May 1857; colls V&A, London, E.907-1887; BM, London, 1859,0709.848; Athenaeum Club, London, 1009; Walker AG, Liverpool, 5620; and Lady Lever AG, Port Sunlight, LL3453 and LL3452; for location of other impressions see Elzea 2001, pp.130–33. Exh. South Kensington M., 1898–9 (554); International Society Exhibition, 1905 (160a); and MFA, Boston, 1985; ref. Dearden 1999, p.53, no.46; repr. Millais 1899, vol.1, p.321; Graphic, 27 Jan. 1900, p.114; Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.179; Hewison, Warrell & Wildman 2000, fig.12; Elzea 2001, p.131, no.1B28; and Fredeman 2002–10, vol.2, p.164; see photograph by Emery Walker, neg. no.452/12, NPG Archive. An untraced original drawing for this was recorded in 1892: see Elzea 2001, p.106, no.1.A.94.
See also Hunt, Millais, Rossetti.

Watercolour by William Bell Scott, July 1857, inscr. by sitters, head-and-shoulders and hands drawing, with Louisa Stewart-Mackenzie; NT, Wallington. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.47 (repr. pl.12); also repr. National Trust magazine, no.22, 1975, p.15; Hunt 1982, pl.14b; and Levi & Tucker 1997, cover.

c.1857
Three works by Thomas Richmond (no images):
(a) oil on canvas, head, life-size; untraced. Refs. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.10; and Dearden 1999, no.48.
(b) oil on canvas, head; untraced. Refs. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.11; and Dearden 1999, no.50.
(c) watercolour sketch, head; untraced. Refs. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.12; and Dearden 1999, no.49.

1860
Ink sketch by Mary Severn, 15 Sept. 1860, whole-length, profile to right, standing on stepladder in National Gallery, copying detail in Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne; priv. coll. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.53 (repr. p.57); also repr. Birkenhead 1965, p.140.

Wood-engr. by unidentified engraver, loosely based on watercolour by Florence Claxton, The Choice of Paris: an Idyll, a satire on the PRB, head and shoulders, profile to right, in a portrait hanging on the back wall of the room; repr. ILN, 2 June 1860, p.541 (where Ruskin’s name written on trumpet flag).
See also F. Madox Brown, Hunt, Millais.

c.1860
Caricature drawing by James Smetham; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.51.

1861
Red chalk drawing by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, signed and dated, head-and-shoulders to front; Ashmolean M., Oxford, WA1891.1. Exh. Rossetti Memorial, Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1883 (134); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.15 (repr. pl.8); and Dearden 1999, no.55; repr. Poole 1912–25, vol.1, p.202; and Leon 1949, p.220.
A sepia sketch by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, inscr. verso ‘Face something like [Ruskin] and figure more especially’ by William Michael Rossetti, three-quarter-length to left, possibly represents Ruskin; Mark Samuels Lasner Coll., on loan to U. of Delware L. Exh. Being William Morris, Pierpont Morgan L., New York, 1996; ref. Dearden 1999, no.56; repr. Troxell 1937, p.28.

1864
Sculpture by Alexander Munro, Feb. 1864; untraced. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.20; and Dearden 1999, no.73.

Two drawings by Samuel Laurence, spring 1864:
(a) coloured chalks drawing, signed by artist, inscr. by sitter; priv. coll. Ref. Sotheby’s, 11 Nov. 1979 (31); and Dearden 1999, no.74.
(b) charcoal drawing, head-and-shoulders to left; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF305. Exh. London, 1919 (249); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.75 (repr. p.69); also repr. Whitehouse 1929, frontispiece; Evans 1954, p.304; Dearden 1960, p.192, fig.3; and elsewhere.

Pen and ink sketch by T. Henderson, signed and dated 12 Dec. 1864, head-and-shoulders, profile to left; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF236. Exh. Ruskin and His Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (32); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.76; repr. Dearden 1960, p.192, fig.4.

1866
Ink sketches by Constance Hilliard, 26 June 1866, profile only, to left; priv. coll. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.77, repr. p.71.

Drawing by Edward Burne-Jones; begun but never completed and presumed destroyed. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.78.

1868
Caricature by unidentified artist, whole-length, standing, profile to right, as policeman in relation to election of rector, Edinburgh University; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.96 (repr. p.79); also repr. as print (coll. Edinburgh UL, MS ref DA).

publ. 1868
Design by John Proctor, whole-length, standing with calves; untraced. Repr. Judy, 29 Jan. 1868 (entitled ‘Nature and Art’; copy MEPL, London, 10039779); ref. Dearden 1999, no.95 (repr. p.79). This image relates to a letter from Ruskin to the Daily Telegraph, 22 Jan. 1868.

1872
Watercolour by Adriano Cecioni, ‘Men of the Day no.40 –The Realisation of the Ideal’, whole-length, standing, profile to left, wearing dark frock coat; Southwark Art Coll., GA0425. Exh. Vanity Fair, NPG, London, 1976 (23, ill.); The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); and Ruskin L., Lancaster U., 2006 (9); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.26; Christie’s, 5 Mar. 1912 (669); and Dearden 1999, no.109.
Chromolithograph after Cecioni publ. Vanity Fair, 17 Feb. 1872; copies Southwark Art Coll., GAP136767; and MEPL, London, 10020252. Exh. Ruskin L., Lancaster U., 2006 (10).
Two preliminary pencil sketches by Cecioni:
(a) Uffizi, Florence, 1174. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.107 (repr. p.85); also repr. Harris & Ormond 1976, p.23.
(b) Uffizi, Florence, 1175. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.108 (repr. p.85).

Pen and ink sketch by Albert Goodwin, whole-length, from rear, seated at desk; priv. coll.

publ. 1872
Design by Frederick Waddy, whole-length, profile to right with wings, flying above city; untraced. Repr. Once a Week, 25 May 1872 (entitled ‘Art Criticism’; copy MEPL, London, 10039777; Waddy 1873; Glasgow Evening Times, 31 Dec. 1904; and Listener, 7 Feb. 1972; ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.31; and Dearden 1999, no.111 (as ‘John Ruskin, caricatured as an Angel of Light’).

Design by (Edward) Linley Sambourne for Vision of Burlington House. Sixth of May., whole-length, to right, running away from throng at RA exhibition; untraced. Repr. Punch, 11 May 1872, p.198; McMaster 2008, p.66, fig.6; McMaster 2009, p.25, fig.13; and Ormond 2010, p.84, fig.31.
See also Ansdell, Calderon, Faed, Leighton, Marks, Millais.

1874
Watercolour by ‘I.N.O’, Great Guns of Oxford, whole-length, to front, as navvy with pick-axe and shovel; Ruskin College, Oxford. Exh. Franco-British Exh., Paris, 1908 (Ruskin College Exhibit); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.30; and Dearden 1999, no.119 (where artist identified as probably Briton Riviere; repr. Bookman, Oct.1908, p.33; and Dearden 1981, p.35.

publ. 1874
Design by ‘CT’ for Ruskin and Realism, whole-length, as navvy with pick-axe; untraced. Repr. Fun, 18 Apr. 1874, p.162 (copy MEPL, London, 10039774; ref. Dearden 1999, no.118.

c.1875
Plaster medallion by Charles Ashmore; untraced. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.32; and Dearden 1999, no.125. Spielmann 1891b, p.122 records this work, noting it was probably based on a photograph; Dearden 1999, p.101 reproduces an old photograph of an untraced plaster relief, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, saying ‘it may be the medallion by Charles Ashmore’.

1876
Drypoint by Georges Labadie Pilotell, head-and-shoulders, profile to left; publ. J. Noseda, 109 Strand, London, in series of celebrities; prints Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and BM, London, 1877,0210.5. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.33; and Dearden 1999, no.131; repr. Spielmann 1891b, p.79; and Spielmann 1900a, p.105.
According to Spielmann 1900a, pp.174–5, Pilotell ‘chanced upon the Professor as he stood before Turner’s “Python” in the National Gallery. The “lightning artist” made a faithful sketch of the thoughtful face and, re-drawing it in drypoint upon copper he introduced it into the series of portraits which he was then producing for Mr Noseda … It may be observed that the hair is parted upon the opposite side – a merely accidental representation owing to the direct sketch upon copper being reversed in the printing.’ Pilotell’s preliminary study, made at the National Gallery, is untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.135.

Miniature by Edward William Andrews; untraced. Exh. RA 1877 (1265); ref. Spielmann 1900a, p.175 (where described as ‘miniature … based on a previously-produced likeness (presumably a photograph)’); Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.34; and Dearden 1999, no.136 (where described as ‘Chalk, life-size’).

Watercolour and bodycolour by Arthur Severn, ?June 1876, half-length in group, reading novel by Walter Scott by candlelight with three companions round table; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF527. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Spielmann 1900a, p.175 (where described as whole-length); and Dearden 1999, no.128 (repr. pl.20); repr. as postcard for Brantwood Trust.

Two pen and ink sketches by Laurence Hilliard, ?23 June 1876:
(a) with billhook, walking away;
(b) same, pausing en route;
Bodleian L., Oxford, MS Eng misc. c.249. Ref. Dearden 1999, nos 129–130.

publ. 1876
Design by (Edward) Linley Sambourne for Lady of the Lake loquitur, as comic knight attacking railway; untraced. Repr. Punch, 5 Feb. 1876; ref. Dearden 1999, no.126 (repr. p.101).

Design by ‘C.T’, as ‘Saint Rusty’ turning disdainfully from Sheffield; untraced. Repr. Fun, 29 Mar. 1876; ref. Dearden 1999, no.127.

1877
Busts by Benjamin Creswick:
(a) head-and-shoulders, modelled from photographs; coll. RBSA. Exh. Sheffield Society of Artists 1877 (222); ref. Dearden 1999, no.139.
(b) head-and-shoulders, modelled from life at Brantwood, Sept. 1877; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF R89. Exh. Sheffield Society of Artists 1878 (1267); Coniston, 1900; and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Spielmann 1900a, pp.176–7 (repr. p.121, turned to left); Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.36; and Dearden 1999, no.140 (repr. p.112); also repr. Collingwood 1893, vol.2, p.103; Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.183 (head profile to left, probably from same image); and Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.30, pl.3. According to Spielmann 1900a, pp.176–7, this bust was then in the Ruskin M., Sheffield, and a duplicate was made for Henry Acland. In Dearden’s view, the latter was probably one of the following casts.
Casts of (b) signed and dated 1877; offered for sale in 1878, of which four are traced (Dearden 1999, no.140) plus a terracotta cast dated 1887.

Bust by I. Curtis-Chomeley; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.133.

Watercolour by Arthur Severn, whole-length; untraced. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.35; and Dearden 1999, no.137.

Ink caricature by Reginald Blomfield, A Modern Art Professor, half-length, profile to right, blowing two trumpets; Morgan L&M, New York, 1984.35. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.138.

Caricature by Fred Hill of Dr Pusey preaching, Ruskin seated far right, looking left; untraced. Publ. 1887 Thos. Shrimpton & Sons, Oxford; repr. Wheeler 1999, p.199.

1877–8
Oil on canvas by J.W. Bunney, signed and dated, whole-length figure inserted into scene of Piazza San Marco, Venice; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.134A.
Small watercolour version by Bunney; priv. coll. Possibly exh. as Venice, FAS, London, 1883 (97); exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.134B.

publ. 1878
Design by Alfred Bryan for Men of the Day – Mr John Ruskin, whole-length, standing, profile to right, probably based on photograph; untraced. Repr. Hornet, 20 Mar. 1878, p.712; ref. Dearden 1999, no.141, repr. p.113.

Design by Alfred Bryan for Days with Celebrities. (46). Mr. Ruskin, inscr. left side, below caricature of James McNeill Whistler, ‘HE TURNETH ROUND ON A FASHIONABLE ARTIST.’ and lower edge ‘AB’, spiking Whistler with a giant quill – one of many little caricatures on a page showing Ruskin with various artistic and literary figures; untraced. Repr. Judy, [1878?]; Pennell & Pennell 1921, facing p.322 (as ‘Caricatures of Trial’).

Design by unidentified artist for The World, the Flesh and the Devil (Whistler and Ruskin); untraced. Repr. Hornet, 4 Dec. 1878; ref. Gallatin 1913a, p.43, no.149; and Gallatin 1918, p.61, no.197.

Design by (Edward) Linley Sambourne for Whistler Versus Ruskin. An Appeal to the Law, signed lower left corner ‘SAMBOURNE DE -’, inscr. on beak of Ruskin as pelican 'OLD PELICAN IN THE ART WILDERNESS', with Whistler as bird with feathery coat and penny-whistle legs; untraced. Ref. Gallatin 1913a, p.43, no.148; Gallatin 1918, pp.61–2, no.198; Denker 1995, pp.72–4; and Dearden 1999, no.142. Repr. as wood-engr., Punch, 7 Dec. 1878, p.254; Gallatin 1918, after p.72; Punch, 13 Jan. 1954 (detail); Merrill 1992, p.253, fig.63; Denker 1995, p.74; Dearden 1999, p.114; and MEPL, London, 10140935

Design by George Pipeshanks [John Wallace] for tobacco promotion by Cope Ltd, whole-length, on horseback following Carlyle but as anti-smoking celebrity; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.144 (repr. p.116).

Design by unidentified artist, head as blackbird; untraced. Repr. Funny Folk, 28 Dec. 1878; ref. Dearden 1999, no.143 (repr. p.115); also repr. Merrill 1992, p.104.

Design by Harry Furniss, John Ruskin à la Whistler, whole-length, standing, profile to right; untraced. Repr. Furniss 1924, facing p.70. According to Furniss 1924, p.72, this sketch was made after the notorious trial but never published.

1879
Watercolour by Hubert Von Herkomer; see NPG 1336.
An undated coloured copy in crayons by H.J. Harvey; Ruskin M., Coniston, ConRM 1898.792. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.154.

publ. 1879
Wood-engr., oval, by Heinrich S. Ulrich, head-and-shoulders to front; no original. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.38; and Dearden 1999, no.146 (repr. p.146); also repr. Graphic, 5 July 1879, special supplement, and issued separately with facsimile Ruskin comment, ‘out and out the best portrait of me yet done’; Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.20, frontispiece; and Dearden 1994, p.45.

1880
Mezzotint etching, 505 x 364mm plate size, by Hubert von Herkomer after watercolour above, issued by the Fine Art Society; NPG D18074.

publ. 1880
Design by (Edward) Linley Sambourne for Morris-Dance round St Mark’s, head to right; untraced. Repr. Punch, 10 Jan. 1880, p.2; ref. Dearden 1999, no.155 (repr. p.124).

Caricature by Alfred Bryan, initialled 'A.B', whole-length, profile to left, standing beside easel in the manner of a schoolteacher, holding cane and whistle; untraced. Repr. as woodcut repr. Entr’acte, 13 Mar. 1880 (captioned 'Mr John Ruskin criticises Mr Henry Irving'); and Irving 1951, p.347; and Richards 2005, p.196. Print BM, London, 1933,1014.644.8.

Caricature by unidentified artist for A Caution to Snakes, whole-length, profile to right, from photograph; untraced. Repr. London Figaro, 24 Mar. 1880; ref. Dearden 1999, no.156 (repr. p.123).

Caricature by Hancock for A Concert by the Powers, whole-length, to left, with small trumpet, Gladstone and Disraeli as bagpipes; untraced. Repr. Moonshine, 23 Oct. 1880; ref. Dearden 1999, no.157 (repr. p.125).

Design by (Edward) Linley Sambourne for Mr Narcissus Ruskin, whole-length, lying prone; untraced. Repr. Punch, 18 Dec. 1880, ‘Punch’s Fancy Portraits No.12’ (copy MEPL, London, 10039776); ref. Dearden 1999, no.160 (repr. p.126).

c.1880
Design by Alfred Bryan for Mr Ruskin, The Complete Letter-writer, whole-length, seated profile to right; untraced. Repr. in unidentified magazine; ref. Dearden 1999, no.159 (repr. p.125).

Ink and watercolour sketches by Alfred Bryan, two head studies, one whole-length, drawn from life; priv. coll. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.158, repr. p.126.

1881
Sculpted bust by Joseph Edgar Boehm; see NPG 1053.

Sepia drawing by T. Raffles Davison; untraced. Exh. Ruskin, Manchester 1904 (368); ref. Dearden 1999, no.163.

Pen and ink drawing by T. Raffles Davison, Fine Art Society, whole-length, in conversation outside FAS with James McNeill Whistler; coll. FAS, London. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.162 (repr. p.129); also repr. British Architect, 16 Dec. 1881; FAS100, FAS, London, 1976, fig.B; and Dearden 1988–91, p.27.

Bust by G. Atkinson, modelled Dec. 1881, head-and-shoulders; untraced. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.42; Dearden 1999, no.164.
Known from terracotta versions, 305mm high, cast by Jabez Thompson Ltd, Northwich; ref. Dearden 1999, no.165 (repr. p.130). Each cast was numbered, four of which are recorded in Dearden 1999, p.234 – St Anne’s Coll., Oxford (no.36); Lakeland Arts Trust, Kendal (no.22); Brantwood, Coniston (nos 12 and 23) – together with an unnumbered cast now Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF R90. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.). Since 1993 new, numbered, casts have been made by Tony Flood for sale at Brantwood.

publ. 1881
Watercolour cartoon by Leslie Ward (‘Spy’), as bust in portrait of sculptor Joseph Edgar Boehm (see above, ‘1879’); untraced. Chromolithograph repr. Vanity Fair, 22 Jan. 1881, ‘Men of the Day no.237’ (‘the Queen’s Sculptor’); copies colls NPG; MEPL, London, 10024399; Henry Moore Inst. Archive, Leeds; and Getty Images, 3330716; ref. Dearden 1999, no.150.
See also the incised brass by Boehm’s son (1890) after the ‘Spy’ cartoon; on Boehm’s tomb, St Paul’s Cathedral. Repr. Ward 1915, p.290.

c.1881
Pen and ink sketch by Laurence Hilliard, Procession on the Moor B[ran]tw[oo]d, whole-length, descending steep slope, with five others; HRHRC, U. of Texas at Austin, 85.48.2.

1882
Watercolour, 736 x 480mm, by W.G. Collingwood, signed and dated Feb. 1882, whole-length, profile to right, seated writing at table in study at Brantwood; Ruskin M., Coniston. Exh. Coniston, 1900 (205); London, 1919 (250); Ruskin and His Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (36); Whitworth AG, Manchester, 1989 (32); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.43; and Dearden 1999, no.166 (repr. p.131); also repr. Casteras et al. 1993, fig.21. See Dearden 1999, pp.131–3 for an account of its execution.
A smaller copy, signed and dated 1893; priv. coll. Exh. Whitworth AG, Manchester, 1989 (32); Christie’s, 26 Apr. 1988; ref. Dearden 1999, no.167 (repr. p.132).

Silverpoint by Ethel Webling, c. spring 1882, head, half-profile to left, full beard; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.168 (repr. p.133); repr. Webling 1914, frontispiece; and Bookman, Dec. 1914, p.107.

Oil on ivory composition by Valentine Prinsep, head-and-shoulders to front, full beard; Ashmolean M., Oxford, WA1934.414. Exh. Arts Council, 1954 (JR 41); Pre-Raphaelites in Oxford, Japan, 1987 (14); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.170 (repr. pl.26).

Thumbnail sketch by W.G. Collingwood, 18 Aug. 1882, inscr. by sitter ‘J.R. in contemplation of a medieval Town (Troyes)’, whole-length, rear view standing in street; coll. Beinecke L., Yale U. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.191 (repr.p.144); also repr. Hunt 1982, pl.28a.

Pen and ink drawing by Charles Randal, Modern Artists, 19 Aug. 1882, whole-length, standing to front, holding hands with W.G. Collingwood and Frank Randal, near Avallon; coll. Guild of St George, Sheffield. Exh. Abbott & Holder, Mar. 1996 (285); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.192 (repr. p.145); also repr. Oldie, Jan. 1996, p.33.

For various portraits drawn from photographs taken in 1882 by Elliott & Fry and H.R. Barraud, see under ‘Photographs, 1882’ below.

publ. 1882
Caricatures by ‘AB’ (Alfred Bryan?), Days with Celebrities, multiple poses, ending with ‘What happened lately’ showing Ruskin’s new beard; untraced. Repr. Moonshine, 6 May 1882, p.205; ref. Dearden 1999, no.169 (repr. p.134).

1883
Pencil sketch by Dugald Sutherland MacColl, 9 Mar. 1883, inscr. ‘Ruskin’s opening lecture’, half-length, standing at lectern, profile to left, reading lecture; Ashmolean M., Oxford, WA1994.13. Exh. Ruskin and His Circle, Arts Council, London, 1964 (37); ref. Dearden 1999, no.193 (repr. p.146); also repr. The Times, 5 Mar. 1932; and Studio, Dec. 1946, p.179. Medallion by C. Emptmeyer; untraced. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.55; and Dearden 1999, no.195. Watercolour caricature, 445 x 562mm, by George Pipeshanks [John Wallace], ‘Cope’s Christmas Card’, at a country fair among more than 100 figures; Mark Samuels Lasner Coll., on loan to U. of Delaware L. Exh. Yale Center for British Art, New Haven (and other venues) 1984–5 (170); and Newark, DE, 2002; ref. Denker 1995, pp.79–80 (repr. p.80); also repr. Stetz 2007, front cover. See also {Burnaby}, Herkomer, Leighton, Millais, Whistler.

1884
Pencil drawing by unidentified artist with ‘CJK’ monogram, signed and dated ‘J.Ruskin / at the London Institution / Feb. 11th 1883 [sic] / 5.45pm’, head-and-shoulders, profile to left, wearing spectacles; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF823. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.197 (repr. p.148). Despite the artist’s inscription, Dearden dates this to 1884, when Ruskin lectured on ‘The Storm-Cloud of the Nineteenth Century’.

Drawing by Kate Greenaway; untraced. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.48a; Dearden 1999, no.196. According to Ruskin, writing Feb. 1884, ‘Out to Holloway – sat for my portrait to K.G.’ According to the artist, writing July 1893, ‘It never progressed beyond a few lines’; quoted Dearden 1999, p.148 and nn223, 224.

Steel-engr., 30 x 23mm, by Hugh Allen to design by W.G. Collingwood, c.Aug. 1884, for seal of the Liverpool Ruskin Society, head, profile to right, clean shaven, presumably derived from a photograph; untraced. Exh. Ruskin, Manchester, 1904 (417); and Guild of St George, Bewdley, Worcs, 2001; ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.41; and Dearden 1999, no.208 (repr. p.154).

1886
Caricature drawing by unidentified artist for Mr Ruskin has been complaining that he can find no books about the shrimp, whole-length, bearded, wearing boater and long coat, with flying shrimps; untraced. Repr. in unidentified publication; ref. Dearden 1999, no.222 (repr. from clipping p.160).

c.1886
Pencil drawing by Theodore Blake Wirgman; see NPG 3035.

publ. 1887
Caricature drawing by ‘TJL’ for The New Hatch, beardless face on hen with Jubilee coinage as chicks; untraced. Repr. Punch, June 1887; ref. Dearden 1991, no.223 (repr. p.161).

Composite engr. by unidentified artist, after photographs of well-known individuals, A Memento of Her Majesty’s Jubilee Year – 1887, head-and-shoulders, slightly profile to right with full beard, centre of composition; repr. Graphic, 17 Dec. 1887, between pp.672–3 (supplement, double-page pullout), with a key to the figures on p.678.
See also Alma-Tadema, Boehm, Leighton, Millais, Morris, Stanley, Tenniel, Watts.

1888
Bust by Conrad Dressler; see NPG 2030.

Miniature on ivory by Ethel Webling, head to front; priv. coll. Exh. RA 1888 (1546); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.56; and Dearden 1999, no.225 (repr. p.16).

Pencil drawing by Edward Robert Hughes, signed and inscr., 24 Apr. 1888, whole-length, profile to left, neat beard, seated; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF245. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.228 (repr. p.165); also repr. Dearden 1960, p.194.

Stained glass by unidentified artist, presumably after a photograph, for Cork High School for Girls, where in situ 1 May 1889; untraced. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.229.

publ. 1888
Sketch by Francis Carruthers Gould, Mr Ruskin, signed with artist’s initials, head-and-shoulders to front, long straggling hair and beard; untraced. Repr. Pall Mall Gazette, 21 Apr. 1888; ref. Dearden 1999, no.227 (repr. p.163).

Caricature by ‘Kuklos’ for John Ruskin sees a cyclist, whole-length, hands up, looking at policeman with penny-farthing; untraced. Repr. in unidentified publication; ref. Dearden 1999, no.226 (repr. from clipping p.163).

1889
Oil on canvas by Henry Jamyn Brooks; see: NPG 1833.

publ. 1890
Drawing by ‘A.J.E’ (?), three-quarter-length, standing in study at Brantwood, holding stone or fossil; untraced. Repr. Cassell’s Saturday Journal, 12 Apr. 1890, p.681; and Literature, 24 Aug. 1901, p.174; ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.68; and Dearden 1999, no.230 (repr. p.166).

1890–91
Two pencil drawings, both 110 x 850mm, by George Howard, 9th Earl of Carlisle, mounted together with fictive frame, inscr. on mount ‘J. Ruskin’:
(a) head-and-shoulders, half-profile to right, hair parted on his right and long flowing beard, hunched into thick overcoat with broad lapel.
(b) head, profile to right, hair parted on his right, long beard; less finished than (a).
Castle Howard, PWC0631. It is possible that these drawings date from Howard’s visit to Brantwood in 1890, when he formally opened the Ruskin Museum in Coniston. The following March Joan Severn wrote telling Howard that although Ruskin ‘does not seem much better he is certainly no worse than when you were here’; Castle Howard Mss. J22/96/1359 23 March 1891.

publ. 1891
Caricature by unidentified artist, whole-length, standing by easel holding maulstick and palette with ‘words’ in place of pigments; untraced. Repr. to accompany biographical sketch in ‘Ariel’s Album’ in unidentified newspaper, 28 Feb. 1891; ref. Dearden 1999, no.231 (repr. p.166).

publ. 1892
Drawing by Phil May, On the Brain – Mr. Whistler, inscr. upper left ‘RUSKIN.’, lower right ‘PHIL MAY’, and lower edge ‘No. 31. On the Brain. – Mr. Whistler’, whole-length, bearded, with dishevelled hair, standing on Whistler’s head; untraced. Repr. (as wood-engr.) Pick-Me-Up, 9 Jan. 1892, p.242; Gallatin 1918, after p.72; Merrill 1992, p.58, fig.26; Denker 1995, p.75 and Dearden 1999, p.168;ref. Gallatin 1918, p.64, no.214; Denker 1995, pp.74–5; and Dearden 1999, p.168, no.236.

1893
Fancy portraits by John Wallace for John Ruskin on himself and things in general:
(a) signed with artist’s initials, as St George on horseback;
(b) signed, three-quarter-length, standing in gondola;
(c) whole-length, thumbnail, seated in Brantwood garden;
untraced. Repr. Cope’s Smoke Room Booklet no.13, 1893 but withdrawn; ref. Dearden 1999, nos 248–50 (repr. p.174).

c.1893
Sketches by J.G.M. Borglum, studies for sculpture (see ‘Posthumous, 1903–4’, below), head, hands and whole-length; priv. coll. Ref. Dearden 1999, nos 251–3 (repr. pp.175–6).

c.1895
Oil on panel of cupboard by Henry Treffry Dunn, head only, in crowd in scene from legend of St George; coll. NT, Wightwick Manor. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.57 (repr. p.60); also repr. Pedrick 1964, pl.14.

1897
Oil on canvas, 600 x 500mm, by W.G. Collingwood, signed and dated, inscr. ‘This is the original study / painted from the life / at Brantwood’, head-and-shoulders to front; Morgan L&M, New York, AZ173. Exh. Liverpool and Coniston, 1900 (297a); Coniston 1919 (213); and London, 1919 (105); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.66; and Dearden 1999, no.272 (repr. pl.30). Used as the basis for the following two works.

Oil on canvas by W.G. Collingwood, signed and dated ‘Brantwood / Jan. 29 1897’, three-quarter-length, seated to front by table with flowers; Ruskin M., Coniston. Possibly exh. RSBA, but not indexed there; ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.65; and Dearden 1999, no.273 (repr. pl.31).

Oil on canvas, 905 x 705mm, by W.G. Collingwood, signed and dated ‘Brantwood Feby 19 1897’, three-quarter-length, seated to front, by table with flowers; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF163. Exh. John Ruskin and Victorian Art, Japan, 1993 (241); Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, Tate, 2000 (260); and The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.275 (repr. pl.32); also repr. Dearden 1994, p.65.

Watercolour by Arthur Severn, signed and dated, half-length to front, seated in armchair; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF529. Exh. Manchester, 1904 (95); London, 1919 (236); Verona, 1966 (84); Kendal 1969 (1); John Ruskin and Victorian Art, Japan, 1993 (226); The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); and elsewhere; ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.64; and Dearden 1999, no.276 (repr. pl.33); also repr. Dearden 1960, p.195; and Severn 1967, frontispiece.

1898–9
Oil version of previous item by Arthur Severn, signed and dated, half-length to front; Ruskin M., Coniston. Exh. Keswick, 1909 (87); Coniston, 1919 (212); and London 1919 (160); ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.63; and Dearden 1999, no.277 (repr. pl.34); also repr. Wedmore 1900, vol.2, p.iv; and Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.38, frontispiece.


Posthumous portraitsback to top


1900
Medallion by Andrea Carlo Lucchesi, head-and-shoulders, profile to left after Elliott & Fry (see ‘Photographs, 1867’ below); on Ruskin memorial, Derwentwater, Cumbria. Photograph of monolith with medallion, MEPL, London, 10257236.
Cast bronze medal, 86mm diam., inscr. on reverse ‘John Ruskin / Reduction of the medallion erected in monolith at Friar’s Crag, Derwentwater / A C Lucchisi [sic] to Charles Dalton Xmas 1902’; BM, London, 2000,0883.1. Repr. MA, 1901, p.144.

publ. 1900
Sketch by W. Small after Arthur Cox, 24 Jan. 1900, face surrounded by wreath, seen through glass panel in coffin; untraced. Repr. Graphic, 3 Feb. 1900, p.142; ref. Dearden 1999, no.291 (repr. p.194).

1901
Woodcut by Robert Bryden, after Elliott & Fry (see ‘Photographs, 1882’, below); NPG D33441; reduced-size loose print publ. as ‘Literature’ Portraits no.16, ‘by special arrangement with Messrs. J.M.Dent & Co’, 24 Aug. 1901; prints BM, London, 1898,1010.13; and NPG SB (Ruskin).

Marble bust by H.C. Fehr, head-and-shoulders, commissioned by John Passmore Edwards for South London AG; Southwark Art Coll., London, GA0139. Exh. Ruskin L., Lancaster U., 2006 (12); ref. Dearden 1999, no.298 (repr. p.200).

Bronze medallion by Edward Onslow Ford, head, profile to left, bearded; Westminster Abbey, installed 8 Feb. 1902. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.295 (repr. p.197).

1903–4
Bronze figurine by J.G.M. Borglum, whole-length, seated, wrapped in rug; six casts recorded, including those in Detroit IA and Met., New York. Exh. The Classical Spirit in American Portraiture, 1976 (48); ref. Dearden 1999 (254, repr. pp.176–7); also repr. Studio, Feb. 1907, p.35; Scribner’s, Dec. 1917, p.745; and W. Price, Gutzon Borglum, Artist & Patriot, Chicago, 1962, p.62.
In 1906–7 a head-and-shoulders version after Borglum’s figure was sculpted by his assistant, Kotaro Takamura; see Dearden 1999, no.255.

c.1904
Pen, ink and watercolour caricature drawing, 201 x 303mm, by Max Beerbohm, Dante Gabriel Rossetti in his Back Garden, half-length, profile to left, at right edge of group, with 10 others incl. A.C. Swinburne; Birmingham MAG, 1981P2. Exh. Carfax G., London, 1904; Artists and Writers, Parkin G., London, 1976 (36); Piccadilly G., London, 1980 (25); British Watercolours from Birmingham, Tokyo, 1992 (7); Visions of Love and Life, New York and Birmingham, 1995 (118); and The Poetry of Drawing, Birmingham MAG and AG of New S Wales, Sydney, 2011 (102); ref. Gallatin 1913a, p.46, no.168; Gallatin 1918, p.70, no.254; Hart-Davis 1972, no.1268, p.119 and Denker 1995, pp.157–8; repr. Beerbohm 1904 and 1943 (no number); Beerbohm 1922 (1987, supplementary pl.3); The Times, 1 Jan. 1972; Dunn 1984, pl.15; Walkley 1994, p.191, fig.154; Denker 1995, p.158; Hall 1997, p.209, fig.198; Dearden 1999, p.202, no.300; and Cruise 2011, p.111, fig.140.
See also Burne-Jones, Hunt, W. Morris, Rossetti, Scott, Whistler.

1916
Pencil and watercolour caricature drawing, 330 x 248mm (support), by Max Beerbohm, An Introduction, whole-length, profile to right, standing holding top hat, with Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Fanny Cornforth; Tate, A01042. Exh. Grosvenor G., London, 1917 (3); Leicester G., London, 1921 (5); Tate, 1923 (5); and Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Painter and Poet, RA, London, 1973 (373); ref. Hart-Davis 1972, p.119, no.1272; and Dearden 1999, no.304 (repr. p.203); also repr. Beerbohm 1922 and 1987, pl.7; Wood 1981, p.94; and Hall 1997, p.213, fig.202.

1919
Plaster bust by Barbara Crystal Collingwood, two versions:
(a) 280mm high; several casts made, of which one in Armitt L., Ambleside, Cumbria. Exh. London, 1919 (530); ref. Dearden 1999, no.305 (repr. p.208).
(b) 560mm high; Ruskin M., Coniston. Exh. Coniston, 1919 (218); and London, 1919 (235); ref. Dearden 1999, no.306 (repr. p.208); also repr. Collingwood 1922.

c.1925
Woodcut, 78 x 53mm, by Robert Ashwin Maynard, after photograph, signed on sheet; BM, London, 1925,0314.27.

before 1931
Watercolour, 146 x 214mm, by Arthur Severn, imaginative portrait of Ruskin sketching, aged about 12, whole-length, seated in landscape; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF526. Exh. The Portraits of John Ruskin, Lancaster, 2000 (no cat. no.); ref. Dearden 1999 no.7 (repr. p.27).

c.1931
Pencil caricature drawing by Max Beerbohm, Shades of Rossetti, Ruskin, Swinburne, Pater and Whistler wondering that so much space has been devoted to this other later Romantic – and whether even he is the ‘Last one’, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, with five other heads; priv. coll., 1999. Ref. Hart-Davis 1972, p.161, no.1829; repr. Dearden 1999, no.308, p.202. W.B. Yeats is the late Romantic being referred to.
See also Rossetti, Whistler.

1936
Caricature drawing by Max Beerbohm, If they were flourishing in this our day, half-length, profile to right, clean shaven and short hair, surrounded by 15 other eminent Victorians ‘shorn of eccentricities of hair, beard, whiskers and clothes; instead dressed and coiffured in the drab uniformity of 1936’, in a scene with W.E. Gladstone as protagonist; untraced. Ref. Hart-Davis 1972, p.67, no.595; and Dearden 1999, no.309 (repr. p.203); also repr. Manchester Guardian, 13 Mar. 1936.
See also Leighton, Rossetti.

1974
Pen and ink caricature drawing 70 x 89mm, by Nicholas Bentley, Clerihew no.14, half-length to front with female figure leaving the room in background; BL Manuscript Coll., London, Ms 81801(Eccles Bequest, vol.183), no.2, inscr. on tissue paper cover ‘Sunday Tel’, ‘Suntele Books’, and a four-line verse in pencil: ‘Ruskin found the married state …. To his own devices’. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.315; repr. Sunday Telegraph, 5 May 1974.

1992
Oil on canvas, 1524 x 1524, by R.B. Kitaj, Whistler versus Ruskin (Novella in Terre Verte, Yellow and Red), dated 1992, whole-length, upside down, being knocked out of boxing ring by Whistler; Marlborough Fine Art Ltd, London. Exh. Marlborough Fine Art, London, 1993; ref. Denker 1995, pp.75–6 (repr. p.75); also repr..


Photographsback to top


1856
Photographs by William Jeffrey, two known poses:
(a) half-length, half-profile to right, seated, left hand across chest to watch-chain; coll. James Dearden. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.9; and Dearden 1999, no.37 (repr. p.45); also repr. Attwell 1900; Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, frontispiece; Clark 1964, dust wrapper; and MEPL, London, 10057786.
(b) half-length to front, seated, left elbow on table; two original prints, colls Working Men’s College, London; and NT, Wallington, Northumberland. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.38 (repr. p.47); also repr. Davies 1904, p.70; and Trevelyan 1978, p.96.
Included as vignette with other Founding Members of the Working Men’s College, on copy neg. by Emery Walker, NPG Archive 45037.

1862
Photographs by L. Caldesi & Co., 13 Pall Mall East, five known poses:
(a) whole-length, standing to left, right arm on chairback, left arm behind back; ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.17; and Dearden 1999, no.61 (repr. p.62); also repr. The Gentlewoman, 28 Jan. 1900.
(b) whole-length, standing, looking forwards, hands in front; ref. Dearden 1999, no.62 (repr. p.62).
(c) carte-de-visite, 102 x 63mm, head-and-shoulders, eyes looking down; The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.223 Ref. Dearden 1999, no.63 (repr. p.63).
(d) 88 x 58mm, vignette, head-and-shoulders, eyes up; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D64; Eastnor Castle, Herefordshire, Album 2; and NPG x12957. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.64 (repr. p.63).
(e) whole-length, standing by chair, looking to left, right hand tucked into top of coat; colls NPG Ax7533; and priv. coll., Japan.

1863
Photographs by W. & D. Downey in garden of Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s house, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, 29 June 1863, three known poses:
(a) albumen print, 165 x 110mm, whole-length, standing centre, holding cane in right hand, with Rossetti (right) and William Bell Scott (left, holding chair); Getty Images, 2673380. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.18; and Dearden 1999, no.65 (repr. p.64); also repr. ‘A Grand Old Photographer: Some Reminiscences of Mr William Downey’, Pall Mall Budget, 15 Jan. 1891; Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.26, pl.18; and elsewhere.
See also Rossetti, Scott.
From this, cropped versions were also issued:
[i] cabinet card, 93 x 150mm, all figures half-length; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D65; colls NPG x128797; and V&A, London, 800-1928.[ii] cabinet card, 165 x110mm, vertical crop to exclude Scott; colls The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.4334 and COMWG2008.364. Repr. Maas 1984, no.212; Lochnan et al. 1993, no.M.1, p.5; Bills & Webb 2007, no.70; and MacCarthy 2001, pl. 9.
Pencil sketch by Max Beerbohm after Downey, inscr. ‘R's Garden 64’, three-quarter-length to left of Rosssetti, among other portrait sketches after photographs; Robert H. Taylor Coll., Princeton UL, MSS RTC01 (no.186) leaf 46. Repr. Beerbohm 1922 (1987, unpaginated appendix); and Dearden 1999, p.66, no.66
See also F. Madox Brown, Leighton, Rossetti, Scott.

(b) albumen print, carte-de-visite, 92 x 60mm (image size), whole-length, standing to right, holding cane, with William Bell Scott (left, foot on chair) and Dante Gabriel Rossetti (centre); colls NPG x12959, NPG Ax38133 (inscribed on back 'Taken just before the great Fall-out, in 1863'); and The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.4335 and COMWG2008.364. Exh. NPG, London, 1984 (6); ref. Dearden 1999, nos 67, 69 (repr. pp.64–5); also repr. Trevelyan 1978, p.128; Maas 1984, fig.213, p.112; Treuherz et al. 2003, fig.88, p.137; Bills & Webb 2007, no.79; and elsewhere.
See also Rossetti, Scott.
Two virtually identical images of pose (b) were taken. In the first, Scott’s eyes are obscured by a blink; Ruskin’s position is the same in both.

(c) albumen print, 90 x 59mm, three-quarter-length, seated, looking forwards, left hand on cane, right hand tucked into waistcoat; colls NPG Ax14797; V&A, London, 866-1965; and The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.227 and COMWG2008.4333. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.70 (repr. p.65); also repr. Maas 1984, p.176; and Bills & Webb 2007, p.31, no.20. As the image contains a backdrop or curtain, it has been assumed that this exposure was taken inside Rossetti’s studio at 16 Cheyne Walk. However, the garden was furnished with a large tent or marquee and, in view of the sharpness, it may well be that (c) was taken outdoors, in front of the tent or an awning.
From this, cropped versions also issued:
[i] 90 x 55mm, head-and-shoulders detail; NPG x12958.[ii] 102 x 63mm, head-and-shoulders detail, variant pose, possibly reversed; The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.225
Ruskin’s portrait was something of a coup for the Downeys, who issued pose (c) publicly. Ruskin complained (perhaps with teasing indignation) to Rossetti, ‘It is all over London – you ought not to have induced me to sit to a man not to be depended upon – I am very angry with you…’ (letter from J. Ruskin to D.G. Rossetti, 17 Sept. 1863, quoted Dearden 1999, p.66) and continued to deplore, writing ‘the entirely blameable introduction you gave to a mere blackguard, to me, has been the cause of such a visible libel upon me going about England as I hold worse than all the scandals and lies ever uttered about me’ (J. Ruskin to D.G. Rossetti, 1865, publ. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, p.491). Notwithstanding Ruskin’s disapproval, the image circulated widely and was used as the basis for a number of later engraved likenesses.

reg. 1866
Photograph by Elliott & Fry, 55 Baker Street, London, reg. for copyright 1866 Mar. 9: National Archive (COPY 1/10) [no image attached], ‘John Ruskin, almost full face’. This description accurately accords with none of the images listed below under 1867, the date ascribed by Cook & Wedderburn and Dearden to Ruskin’s first sittings to Elliott & Fry, although it might conceivably apply to the pose in NPG Ax18217 (see below, ‘1867, Second sitting, pose [b]’). As no print was lodged with the registration document, the matter cannot be resolved, but it is possible that the registration in 1866 refers to an image taken at what Dearden identifies as the 1867 ‘second sitting’, during which only two poses were taken.

1867
Photographs by Elliott & Fry, five known poses from two sittings:
First sitting
(a) albumen print, 76 x 51mm, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, with pale stock, dark coat, light-coloured waistcoat and long side whiskers; colls The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.517; V&A, London, PH.460-1978 and PH 461-1978; and Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D86. Refs Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.23; and Dearden 1999, no.86 (repr. p.76); also repr. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.27, frontispiece; and (as lithograph) Bookman, Oct. 1908, p.17.
Copies and versions include:
[i] Pencil drawing, 95 x 57mm, by J.C. Barry Lindsay; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF309. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.88.[ii] Pencil sketch, 152 x 197mm, possibly by Arthur Severn, profile only, head lightly sketched; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, RF528. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.87 (repr. p.76); also repr. Dearden 1960, p.193, fig.5.[iii] Etching, 197 x 127mm, by Samuel Haydon, reversed image, profile to left; ref. Dearden 1999, no.90 (repr. p.76).[iv] Wax medallion probably by W.C. Marshall, signed ‘WM / 1882’; coll. Brantwood, Coniston. Exh. Christie’s, 5 Oct. 1976 (16); and Maas G., London, June 1991 (36, ill.); ref. Dearden 1999, no.91 (repr. p.76).[v] As watermark on notepaper; ref. Dearden 1999, no.92.
For vignette image, see albumen cabinet cards, 146 x 105mm, NPG x35909; and 91 x 59mm, NPG Ax39887.

(b) head-and-shoulders, facing front, shoulders turned very slightly to left; colls The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.518; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D81; and (as carte-de-visite published by J.C. Murdoch) NPG x46581. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.81 (repr. p.74); also repr. Bookman, Oct. 1908, p.21; and (as oval wood-engraving by Heinrich S. Ulrich) Graphic, supplement, 5 July 1879.
For vignette image, see albumen cabinet card; colls Gettysburg Coll., GNI15007; and NPG x13290.
Together, the vignette image and oval engraving probably formed the basis for reproductions on ceramic:
[i] sepia transfer on bone china Copeland plate, created 1881, sold 1882; ref. Dearden 1999, no.82 (repr. p.74).[ii] painted by Stephen Chesters on porcelain panel, n.d.; ref. Dearden 1999, no.83 (repr. p.75).
(c) identical to (b), but lips slightly parted; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D84. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.84.

Second sitting
(a) 102 x 63mm, head-and-shoulders, facing left, leaning slightly forwards, overcoat with velvet collar; vignetted version, The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.1830; vignette version, 93 x 60mm, NPG x13291 and NPG x129558. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.94 (repr. p.78).

1869
Photographs by Elliott & Fry, in which Ruskin wears a dark stock, homespun suit and dark coat, six known poses:
(a) quarter-length to front, reg. for copyright 1896 June 16: National Archive (COPY 1/15) (when Elliott & Fry business transferred); colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D97 (plus carte-de-visite and postcard versions); and carte-de-visite, 95 x 61mm, NPG x29554. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.97 (repr. p.80); also repr. Spielmann 1900a, p.91 (engr. by ‘M K’ and dated to 1866); Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.180; and Lutyens 1972, p.51. Vignette versions; The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.224, COMWG2008.519, and COMWG2008.3481.
(b) quarter-length, slightly to right; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D98; as vignette, albumen carte-de-visite, 91 x 58mm, head-and-shoulders; NPG x13292. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.98 (repr. p.80).
(c) head-and-shoulders, to front, head up; ref. Dearden 1999, no.99 (repr. p.81); also repr. Quennell 1949, p.112; Birkenhead 1965, p.172; and Surtees 1972, p.14. Carte-de-visite, 91 x 57mm; colls The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.226 and COMWG2008.519; and NPG Ax17821. Lithographic copies in Wellesley Coll., MA; and South London AG.
(d) head-and-shoulders, to front, head tilted forwards, forehead lines; colls Butler L., Columbia U., New York.; and Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D99. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.100 (repr. p.81); also repr. J.A. Froude, Carlyle, London and Columbus, OH, 1979.
(e) half-length, seated to front; Butler L., Columbia U., New York. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.101 (repr. p.81).
(f) half-length, half profile to right, seated; Butler L., Columbia U., New York. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.102 (repr. p.81).
The three prints at Columbia U. are presumed to have come from Thomas Carlyle’s collection.

1872
Photograph by unidentified photographer in Venice, summer 1872, whole-length, seated, profile to right, hands clasped on left knee, in group including Joan and Arthur Severn, Albert Goodwin, Mrs J.C. Hilliard and daughter; colls heirs of John Bunney; and Brantwood, Coniston. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.112 (repr. p.89); also repr. Dearden 1972, p.240; and Ruskin and Tuscany, exh. cat., 1993, p.114.
Detailed watercolour by C.H. Moore after this image; Fogg AM, Harvard, 1919.1. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.113 (repr. p.90 ); repr. F.J. Mather, Charles Herbert Moore, Landscape Painter, Princeton, 1957, pl.34.

1873
Photograph by Frank Meadow Sutcliffe, taken at Brantwood, autumn 1873, three-quarter-length, seated by stone wall, soft hat on ground to left; original print Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D115; original neg. Sutcliffe G., Whitby. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.115 (repr. p.92); also repr. Dearden 1970, frontispiece; Barnes 1985, p.8; Casteras et al. 1993, fig.139; and elsewhere.

1875
Photograph by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson): see NPG P50.

Photograph by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), Oxford, 3 June 1875, half-length, seated at table, left hand to chin, right hand on lap; colls The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.369; and NPG x29187. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.123 (repr. cropped p.99); also repr. 165 x 108mm, Stereoscopic Co. Ltd.
Watercolour by C.H. Moore after this; Fogg AM, Harvard, Sachs Coll., 317.1930. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.113 (repr. p.90).

reg. 1876
Albumen print, 222 x 159mm, by Hughes & Edmonds, after untraced composite drawing by unidentified artist (probably executed after a photograph), whole-length, profile to left, holding a book, seated to front left in room with five other figures (including Charles Darwin and John Stuart Mill); NPG Ax132900. Reg. for copyright 1876 Aug. 16: National Archives (COPY 1/34); repr. Hughes & Edmonds 1876, part 1 (as ‘Authors’).

1879
Photograph by J. Lund of Coniston, whole-length, standing in group on ice of frozen Coniston Water, below Brantwood; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D145. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.145 (repr. p.117).

1881
Platinum prints by T.A. and J. Green, Sept. 1881, three known poses:
(a) see NPG P327. Pencil copy by Charles M. Gere, signed and dated 1 Nov. 1890 and inscr.; priv. coll.
(b) variant pose, reg. for copyright 1881 Sept. 22: National Archives (COPY 1/54).
(c) seated with group including Joan, Arthur and Lily Severn on grass outside Brantwood, overlooking Coniston Water, reg. for copyright 1881 Sept. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/54); repr. MEPL, London, 10474393.

1882
Photographs by Herbert Rose Barraud, Herne Hill, Apr. 1882, reg. for copyright 1882 May 2: National Archives (COPY 1/57), eight registered poses, with prints:
(a) head-and-shoulders, ‘full-face’; issued as cabinet cards with facsimile signature on mount ‘faithfully yours J Ruskin’, NPG x1372 (137 x 104mm) and NPG x13289 (135 x 104mm). Ref. Dearden 1999, no.179 (repr. p.140); repr. Bookman, Oct. 1908. Engr. version by T. Johnson; coll. Wellesley College. This image was used as the basis for several portraits in other media; see Dearden 1999, nos 180–84.
(b) head-and-shoulders, ‘full face, eyes directed to his left, head inclined forward’; ref. Dearden 1999, no.185 (repr. p.141); engr. by T.A. Butler repr. Pictorial World, 25 Dec. 1884, frontispiece (coll. Wellesley College). This image was used for an undated oil portrait by Henry H. Sands; see Dearden 1999, no.186.
(c) head-and-shoulders, slightly to right, ‘full 3/4 face, looking to his left, beard and whiskers not clearly defined’; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D187. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.48; and Dearden 1999, no.187 (repr. p.142); also repr. Collingwood 1893, vol.2, p.215; and as coloured postcard by Peacock.
(d) head-and-shoulders, ‘3/4 face, looking to his right, strong shade on left side’; Ruskin L., Lancaster, U., Ruskin Foundation, D179. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.178 (repr. p.140).
(e) head-and-shoulders vignette, ‘full face, beard and whiskers not very sharply defined’; not known to have been reproduced, and difficult to distinguish from (a), but registered as a separate image.
(f) head-and-shoulders vignette, ‘3/4 face, looking to his right, head thrown forward’; not known to have been reproduced, and similar to (d) but head differently tilted.
(g) head-and-shoulders vignette, ‘full 3/4 face, looking to his right’, eyes lifted; not known to have been reproduced.
(h) head-and-shoulders, ‘full 3/4 face, looking to his left’; not known to have been reproduced, and similar to (c) but slightly more close-up.
On 30 Apr. 1882, Ruskin wrote to Barraud: ‘We are all much more than pleased with these results of your extreme skill and care; – they are the first photographs ever done of me that express what good or character there is in me for my own work; and as pure photography, they seem to me to go as far as the art can at this day (and I do not believe it can ever do much better).’ This letter was reproduced and issued by Barraud as a testimonial; see Dearden 1999, pp.139–40. For Barraud’s second photographic session, see below, ‘1885’.

Photographs by Elliott & Fry. Ruskin sat to Elliott & Fry on at least two occasions in 1882 (see Dearden 1999, p.173); the very slight variations in pose make it difficult to determine the exact chronology. In all compositions Ruskin wears a dark coat over a lighter-coloured double-breasted tweed jacket; in some a watch-chain over the tweed jacket is visible:
(a) head-and-shoulders, looking to front, medium-length beard, dark coat, lighter waistcoat, watch-chain visible, reg. for copyright 1882 Sept. 11: National Archives (COPY 1/58) as ‘large head, full face’ and re-reg. 1896 June 16; The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.3706; and half-plate copy glass neg. NPG x81995 (purchased from Bassano Studios). Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.44; and Dearden 1999, no.171 (repr. p.136); also repr. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.29, frontispiece; Bookman, Mar. 1908, p.28; Bills & Webb 2007, p.31, no.21; and MEPL, London, 10020246. Dearden 1999, p.136 describes this frequently reproduced image as taken during a ‘first sitting’ with Elliott & Fry early in 1882, although it and (b) could also plausibly date from the documented ‘second sitting’ on 9 Aug.
As (a) was very frequently reproduced, as for example as photogravure by Maclure, Macdonald & Co., it became the basis for many derivative portraits, by P.A. Traquair (Dearden 1999, no.172); by E.M. Jameson (Dearden 1999, no.173); by Isabella Jay (Dearden 1999, no.174, repr. pl.27; also repr. Dearden 1960, p.194, fig.8); by Robert Bryden (NPG D33441); and by Herbert Cole (Dearden 1999, no.177); and including busts by R. Morris (Dearden 1999, no.175, pl.28).

(b) head-and-shoulders, three-quarter profile to right, beard jutting to right, overcoat unbuttoned over tweed jacket; probably that reg. for copyright 1882 Sept. 11: National Archives (COPY 1/58) as ‘large head, nearly profile, looking to his left’ and re-reg. 1896 June 16; engr. repr. Spielmann 1891b, p.123 (where attributed to Elliott & Fry and dated 9 Aug. 1882); and Spielmann 1900a, p.155 (attributed to Barraud and dated 1882). Issued as coloured postcard by Peacock; vignette version Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D171.

(c) carte-de-visite, 300 x 190mm, facsimile signature along base, three-quarter-length, seated, facing front with hands clasped, right elbow on table, bearded and wearing dark coat and tweed waistcoat with watch-chain; The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.3726. Repr. Bills & Webb 2007, p.31 (22). Evidently from the same session as (a) and (b) but not registered.

(d) carbon print, 133 x 97mm, head-and-shoulders, half-profile to right, level gaze, watch-chain visible; repr. 27 June 1891 in unidentified periodical (NPG x13294); and 1900 in unidentified German-language periodical (see MEPL, London, 10057788).

Probably taken on 9 Aug. 1882 (see Dearden 1999, p.143):
(e) carte-de-visite, head-and-shoulders, looking to right, slightly trimmed beard, wearing tweed jacket and dark overcoat, no watch-chain. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.188 (repr. p.143); also repr. Bookman, Feb. 1919 (NPG x13296, photogravure); as engr. (no overcoat) Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.186; engr. after image by C. Lewis coll. Wellesley College.

(f) carte-de-visite, 90 x 60mm, half-length to front, arms to lap, trimmed beard; NPG x38849. Probably that reg. for copyright 1882 Dec. 1: National Archives (COPY 1/59) as ‘full figure, full face’.

(g) albumen carte-de-visite, 91 x 60mm, head to front, trimmed beard; NPG x13293.

(h) half-length, head turned slightly to right, reg. for copyright 1882 Dec. 1: National Archives (COPY 1/58) as ‘full figure 3/4 face’; no repr. identified.

(i) 133 x 97mm, head-and-shoulders, half-profile to right, trimmed beard; The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.1008; and NPG x13294. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.46; and Dearden 1999, no.190 (repr. p.143).

(j) head-and-shoulders, looking down to left; repr. Chroniques de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris, Dec. 1999, back cover.

1885
Photographs by Herbert Rose Barraud, taken in photographer’s studio, May–June 1885, eleven known poses:
(a) nearly whole-length, to front, standing against painted backdrop of tree and fence, right hand tucked into coat revers; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D212; and (as albumen cabinet card, 130 x 103mm) NPG x38841. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.53; and Dearden 1999, no.212 (repr. p.157); also repr. Bookman, Mar. 1900.
(b) three-quarter-length, standing, identical pose; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D211. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.211 (repr. p.156).
(c) three-quarter-length, standing, virtually identical pose, eyes looking to right; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D211; and 123 x 81mm, NPGx26520. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.210 (repr. p.156); also repr. as engr. by Guillaume (half-length) Spielmann 1900a, p.183; and as Rotary postcard.
(d) whole-length, seated at a table, looking forwards; carbon print mounted on card, 249 x 180mm, publ. Richard Bentley & Son, NPG Ax 5407, NPG x135384; and The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.3705. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.217 (repr. p.158). Engr. by F.W. Burton (half-length); BM, London (ref. O’Donoghue 1908–1922, vol.6, p.364, no.19). Ref. Dearden 1999, no.218 (repr. p.158); also repr. Collingwood 1889, frontispiece. Single proofs of this engraving were also issued.
(e) half-length, looking forwards, seated at table, left hand to cheek, right arm resting on table-top; colls NPG x36243; and priv. coll. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.47; Dearden 1999, no.216 (repr. p.158); also repr. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.34, frontispiece; and Bookman, Oct. 1908, p.28. A slightly trimmed variant pose known to James Dearden, 2008.
(f) three-quarter-length, half-profile to right, seated, hands clasped in lap; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D220; and (as head-and-shoulders vignette) NPG x1513. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.220 (repr. p.159).
(g) head-and-shoulders, profile to left; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D213. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.213 (repr. p.157).
(h) head-and-shoulders, looking to left; ref. Dearden 1999, no.215 (repr. p.157); also repr. Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.189.
(i) three-quarter-length, profile to right, seated with hands on table, looking down; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D219. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.219 (repr. p.159). Also known from repr. in Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.192, where image altered to change table and chair and insert shelves behind.
(j) whole-length, standing, arms behind back; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation.
(k) whole-length, standing between chair and table; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation.

1891
Photographs, possibly by Percy Lund & Co. of Coniston (see Dearden 1999, p.167 for discussion of attribution), taken on Coniston Water, three known poses:
(a) half-length, seated at oars of rowing boat; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D232 (but printed in reverse). Ref. Dearden 1999, no.232 (repr. p.167).
(b) half-length, seated at oars of rowing boat, sailboat in background, reg. for copyright by John McClelland 1895 Jan. 30: National Archives (COPY 1/419/275) as ‘Mr Ruskin Mr & Mrs Arthur Severn in boats on Coniston Lake, near Brantwood’; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation, D233; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x39718. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.233 (repr. p.167).
(c) half-length, seated in rowing boat at far left of frame; half-plate glass neg. NPG x12189. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.234 (repr. p.167).

1892
Photograph by Capt. Walker, taken at Brantwood, whole-length, standing, to front, Joan Severn to right; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.57; and Dearden 1999, no.235 (repr. p.168); also repr. Collingwood 1893, vol.2, p.244.

Photographs by John McClelland, taken at Brantwood and dated to summer 1892 by Dearden 1999, two known poses:
(a) three-quarter-length, standing before ivy-covered stone wall, wearing soft hat, reg. for copyright 1893 Feb. 1: National Archives (COPY 1/411/154) as ‘Photograph of John Ruskin 3/4 length, full face, dressed as if going for a walk’; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U.; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x12175. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.237 (repr. p.169).
(b) three-quarter-length, standing before ivy-covered stone wall, holding hat, Joan Severn to right; half-plate glass neg. NPG x39720. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.238 (repr. p.170).

1893
Photographs by Sarah Angelina Acland, taken at Brantwood, 1 Aug. 1893, five known poses:
(a) half-plate negative, half-length, to front, seated in wicker chair outdoors; Bodleian L., Oxford, Minn negative 169/15; and M. of History of Science, Oxford, 17603 (lantern slide) [1]. Reg. for copyright 1893 Oct. 10: National Archives (COPY 1/414/196); ref. Dearden 1999, no.239 (repr. p.171); and repr. Hudson 2012, pl.19.
(b) three-quarter-length, to front, variant of (a) above, reg. for copyright 1893 Oct. 11: National Archives (COPY 1/414/205); coll. James Dearden. Repr. as ink and wash drawing by B.C. Leeming, signed and dated 1901; ref. Dearden 1999, no.240 (repr. p.171).
(c) half-plate negative, whole-length, profile to left, left hand to beard, seated outdoors, Henry Wentworth Acland holding his sketchbook to right; Bodleian L., Oxford, Minn negative 169/11. Reg. for copyright 1893 Oct. 10: National Archives (COPY 1/414/195); whole image, 165 x 108mm, NPG x13297 (photogravure); The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.368 (cabinet card); and M. of History of Science, Oxford, 17293 (lantern slide) [2]; half-length vignette (Ruskin only), 167 x 120mm, NPG x5588 (platinum print). Exh. RPS 1900 (bromide print); ref. Dearden 1999, no.241 (repr. p.171); repr. Bills & Webb 2007, p.30, no.18; and Hudson 2012, pl.18 (where titled 'Mr Ruskin & his Old Friend at Brantwood', as given by the photographer).
(d) whole-length, profile to right, seated outdoors, Henry Wentworth Acland to right, Joan Severn standing behind, reg. for copyright 1893 Oct. 10: National Archives (COPY 1/414/194); Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.242 (repr. p.171).
The two registration dates indicate only when details were formally entered on index cards, customarily a few days after deposition.
(e) albumen print from quarter-plate negative, whole-length to front walking towards camera with dog and manservant (Baxter); Bodleian L., MS Photogr. c.177 f.57. Repr Hudson 2012, pl.17 (where titled ‘Mr Ruskin, Bramble & Baxter’, as given by the photographer).

c.1893
Photographs by John McClelland, taken at Brantwood and dated to Aug. 1893 by Dearden 1999, but showing winter woodland and flowers, so possibly dating from Feb. 1895, four known poses:
(a) three-quarter-length, near-profile to left, wearing soft hat and leather gloves, seated on garden bench with walking stick; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; half-plate glass neg. NPG x12176. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.243 (repr. p.172).
(b) three-quarter-length, looking right, wearing hat and gloves, with walking stick, seated on garden bench, chicken-wire visible behind; ref. Dearden 1999, no.244 (repr. p.172).
(c) three-quarter-length, looking up to right, seated on garden bench, Joan Severn holding umbrella to right; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; half-plate glass neg. NPG x12177. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.245 (repr. p.173).
(d) three-quarter-length, seated behind table in study, left hand to beard, spring flowers in vases; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and as postcard issued by Valentines. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.247 (repr. p.173).

1894
Photograph by C.P. MacCarthy, ‘Professor Ruskin in his study’, May 1894, head-and-shoulders to front, reg. for copyright 1895 Feb. 13: National Archives (COPY 1/419/318); colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and (as postcard, 118 x 78mm) NPG x5101; also print at Brantwood, Coniston. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.59a; and Dearden 1999, no.257 (repr. p.178).

Photographs by Frederick Hollyer, taken at Brantwood, Cumbria, Sept. 1894, five known poses:
(a) silver bromide print, 245 x 275mm, three-quarter-length, seated on outdoor bench with William Holman Hunt to right, reg. for copyright 1894 Oct. 25: National Archives (COPY 1/418/226); and again 1907 Aug. 29: National Archives (COPY 1/513/229); The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.4326. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.258 (repr. p.179); also repr. Sphere, July 1901; Maas 1984, no.198; and Bills & Webb 2007, no.91.
(b) three-quarter-length, seated on outdoor bench, Joan Severn to right, reg. for copyright 1894 Oct. 25: National Archives (COPY 1/418/227); Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.259 (repr. p.180).
(c) three-quarter-length, looking to right, seated on outdoor bench, hands clasped, reg. for copyright 1894 Oct. 25: National Archives (COPY 1/418/228); Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.260 (repr. p.180).
(d) platinotype, 295 x 375mm, half-length, profile to left, seated in study, with long beard and hands crossed upon lap, reg. for copyright 1894 Oct. 25: National Archives (COPY 1/418/229); colls The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.4327; Southwark Art Coll., London, GA0431A; Ruskin G., Sheffield; and Ruskin L., Lancaster U. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.60; and Dearden 1999, no.261 (repr. p.180); also repr. MA, 1900, p.264; Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.25, frontispiece, entitled ‘Datur hora quieti’; Maas 1984, p.177; Casteras et al. 1993, fig.152; and Bills & Webb 2007, p.55, no.74.
(e) half-length, seated to left, indoors, looking to camera; ref. Dearden 1999, no.263 (repr. p.181); also repr. Meynell 1940, p.60. A head-and-shoulders detail reg. for copyright 1894 Oct. 25: National Archives (COPY 1/418/230).

1895
Photographs by John McClelland, taken on frozen Coniston Water and at Brantwood, 14 Feb. 1895, eight known poses:
(a) whole-length, seated on cast-iron seat, wapped in furs, in large group from Brantwood household on frozen lake; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.264 (repr. p.182). Dearden 1999, p.184 conjectures that this frame was taken by Peter Baxter, Ruskin’s manservant, and that the group includes the photographer. It is evidently a preliminary frame.
(b) whole-lenth in identical pose but with enlarged group including man on high-wheeled tricycle; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x12188. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.265 (repr. p.182).
(c) virtually identical to (b) but eleven figures visible, reg. for copyright 1895 Apr. 29: National Archives (COPY 1/420/302); colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x39717. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.266 (repr. p.183).
(d) half-length to front, standing, as vignette image, reg. for copyright 1895 Apr. 29: National Archives (COPY 1/420/309); colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x12174, plus cabinet print, 151 x 109mm, NPG x13295. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.267 (repr. p.183); also repr. (head only) Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.173.
(e) whole-length, standing on snowy ground, dog and Peter Baxter to right; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x39719. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.268 (repr. p.184).
(f) same as (e) but dog in front of Ruskin; Ruskin L., Lancaster U, Ruskin Foundation. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.269 (repr. p.184).
(g) three-quarter-length, seated in basket chair, with crook-handled walking stick; ref. Dearden 1999, no.270 (repr. p.185).
(h) virtually identical to (g) but without stick; ref. Dearden 1999, no.271 (repr. p.185).

1897
Photographs by John McClelland, taken at Brantwood, July 1897, two known poses:
(a) half-length, to front, seated in study by table, hands visible, reg. for copyright 1897 Sept. 18: National Archives (COPY 1/135) as ‘Photograph of John Ruskin taken in his study at Brantwood, Coniston Lake on the 17th July 97’; Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x12178. Ref. Cook & Wedderburn 1903–12, vol.36, no.62; and Dearden 1999, no.278 (repr. p.189); also repr. Scribner’s, Dec. 1898; and MEPL, London, 10057789.
(b) apparently from same sitting, half-length to front, seated at table in study, landscape format; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation (this image does not appear in McClelland’s negative archive); and NPG x38850. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.279 (repr. pl.35).

1898
Photographs by John McClelland, taken at Brantwood, 25 July 1898, nine known poses:
(a) three-quarter-length to front, seated in wheelchair outside front door, folded parasol to left; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; half-plate glass neg. NPG x12183; and two cropped images on half-plate glass negs NPG x12181 and NPG x12182. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.280 (repr. p.190). Vignette image reg. for copyright 1898 Aug. 20: National Archives (COPY 1/143) as ‘Photograph of John Ruskin taken at Brantwood Coniston Lancashire on 25th July 1898 showing part of the pillar at the front door. Full front face photo’.
(b) nearly whole-length, looking to right, seated outdoors in wheelchair, Joan Severn seated to right, reg. for copyright 1898 Aug. 20: National Archives (COPY 1/143); colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x12185. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.281 (repr. p.191).
(c) nearly whole-length, looking to left, seated outdoors in wheelchair, Joan Severn standing to right; half-plate glass neg. NPG x12184. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.282 (repr. p.191).
(d) whole-length, to front, wearing hat, seated on garden bench, dog at feet; colls Ruskin L., Lancaster U., Ruskin Foundation; and half-plate glass neg. NPG x12180. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.283 (repr. p.191).
(e) whole-length, looking to camera, half-seated on garden bench, Joan Severn to left; ref. Dearden 1999, no.284 (repr. p.191).
(f) three-quarter-length, to front, standing in garden with parasol, Joan Severn to left; ref. Dearden 1999, no.285 (repr. p.192).
(g) nearly whole-length, to front, slumped in study; ref. Dearden 1999, no.286 (repr. p.192).
(h) half-length, to front, seated in study; half-plate glass neg. NPG x12179. Ref. Dearden 1999, no.287 (repr. p.192); engr. by Exemplar Engraving Co. repr. Bookman, Dec. 1899, supplement, as ‘from a new portrait by J.MCClelland’; and Bookman, Mar. 1900, p.194.
(i) whole-length, to front, seated in study, Joan Severn standing behind; ref. Dearden 1999, no.288 (repr. p.192).
Note: one of the images with Joan Severn (b) (c) (e) (f) or (i) reg. for copyright 1898 Aug. 20: National Archives (COPY 1/143) as ‘Photograph of John Ruskin with Mrs Arthur Severn taken at Brantwood Coniston Lancashire on 25th July / 98’.
One solo figure or vignette reg. for copyright 1898 Aug. 20: National Archives (COPY 1/143) as ‘Photograph of John Ruskin taken at Brantwood Coniston Lancashire on 25th July 1898 face turned slightly to one side’.

Footnotes
1) The glass plate negative was copied by the photographer as a lantern slide and prepared by her for a photogravure that was never completed. It was first reproduced (without her permission) in The London Home, October 1895; ref. Hudson 2012, p.68.
2) Originally taken on celluloid film, this image was transferred by the photographer onto glass plates and copied as a lantern slide in 1898. A photogravure by the Swan Electric Engraving Co. was published in H.W. Acland & J. Ruskin, The Oxford Museum (1893; publ. 1894), and was widely distributed; ref. Hudson 2012, p.66.

Dr Jan Marsh