Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), Explorer and journalist

Explorer and journalist; born 28 January 1841 at Denbigh, Wales, where baptised John Rowlands. After troubled childhood, including eight years in workhouse at St Asaph, travelled to Liverpool and embarked as cabin-boy on American packet ship 1858;[1] in New Orleans adopted name Henry Morton Stanley (ostensibly after early benefactor); pursued a variety of occupations and enlisted on both sides in American Civil War before beginning career in journalism; special correspondent for New York Herald 1867, reporting on British Expedition to Abyssinia, followed by frequent reports from Europe and the Middle East;[2] from March 1871 led search (funded by the Herald) to ‘find’ David Livingstone, whom he encountered at Ujiji on the shores of Lake Tanganyika November 1871; returned to controversy and censure by Royal Geographical Society August 1872, though subsequently awarded its gold medal; wrote How I Found Livingstone in Central Africa (1872); led trans-African expedition November 1874 to August 1877, successfully solving remaining uncertainties concerning source of the Nile; wrote Through the Dark Continent (1878); returned to Congo August 1879 to September 1884 at the behest of King Leopold II of Belgium, establishing trading stations along the river and paving the way for the founding of Congo Free State; led Emin Pasha Relief Expedition to support besieged governor of equatorial Sudan March 1887 to December 1889; wrote In Darkest Africa (1890); returned to London April 1890 where heavily fêted with banquets and lectures; awarded RGS gold medal May 1890; married Dorothy Tennant at Westminster Abbey July 1890; in same year received honorary degrees from Cambridge, Oxford, Durham and Edinburgh universities; with wife’s encouragement, embarked on parliamentary career as Liberal Unionist candidate for North Lambeth, defeated June 1892 but elected July 1895; adopted a child he named Denzil (reputedly son of his first cousin) 1896; purchased Furze Hill, a mansion in Surrey, January 1899, where he spent the majority of his remaining years; knighted May 1899; died 19 May 1904 in London; buried in Pirbright, Surrey.

Dorothy Stanley wrote an effective description of her (future) husband’s appearance in middle-age:

His thick grey hair lies flat and smooth, rather thatch-like … near silver white; his thick throat supports a splendidly shaped head, broad … and well-developed.… His forehead is square, his eyes are very remarkable … they make you sincere, they demand of you your very self.… His mouth is partly concealed by a grizzly moustache … the nether lip is masterful and determined.… His face is somewhat marked by exposure to the sun, by fever, by responsibility, by anxiety.… His eyes look tender and sorrowful.… He uses his hands very much when talking.… What seized me when I first saw him … is his powerfulness.… Mother felt it also.[3]

Elizabeth Heath

Footnotesback to top

1) Jeal 2007, pp.17–39.
2) Driver 2004.
3) Dorothy Tennant Diary, quoted Jeal 2007, p.303 (where dated to mid-July 1885, although photographs suggest that Stanley’s hair turned completely grey only during his last African expedition, 1887–9).

Referencesback to top

Aimot 1951
Aimot, J.M., Stanley, le dernier conquistador, Paris, 1951.

Anon 1875
Anon., The History of Southern & Central Africa, London, 1875.

Anstruther 1956
Anstruther, I., I Presume: Stanley’s Triumph and Disaster, London, 1956.

Batchelor 1990
Batchelor, J., and J. Batchelor, In Stanley’s Footsteps: Across Africa from West to East, London, 1990.

Bierman 1991
Bierman, J., Dark Safari: The Life behind the Legend of Henry Morton Stanley, London, 1991.

Buel 1890
Buel, J.W., Heroes of the Dark Continent: and How Stanley found Emin Pasha, Guelph, Ontario, 1890.

Casati 1891
Casati, G., Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha, 2 vols, London, 1891.

Cooper 1876–83
Cooper, T., Men of Mark: A Gallery of Contemporary Portraits of Men Distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in Science, Literature and Art, the Army, Navy, Law, Medicine, etc. Photographed from life by Lock and Whitfield, London, 7 ser., 1876–83.

Coupland 1945
Coupland, R., Livingstone’s Last Journey, London, 1945.

Driver 2004
Driver, F., ‘Stanley, Sir Henry Morton (1841–1904)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; online ed. May 2011.

Farwell 1957
Farwell, B., The Man Who Presumed: A Biography of Henry M. Stanley, London, 1957.

Furniss [1919]
Furniss, H., My Bohemian Days, London, n.d. [1919].

George 1895
George, T., The Birth, Boyhood, and Younger Days of H.M. Stanley, London, 1895.

Hall 1997
Hall, N.J., Max Beerbohm Caricatures, New Haven and London, 1997.

Hall 2004
Hall, N.J., ‘Beerbohm, Sir Henry Maximilian [Max] (1872–1956)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; online ed. Jan. 2008.

Hall 1974
Hall, R., Stanley: An Adventurer Explored, London, 1974.

Hamilton 2009
Hamilton, T., Immortal Longings: F.W.H. Myers and the Victorian Search for Life after Death, Exeter, 2009.

Hannas 1972
Hannas, L., The English Jigsaw Puzzle, 1760–1890, London, 1972.

Hart-Davis 1972
Hart-Davis, R., A Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London, 1972.

Hart-Davis 1988
Hart-Davis, R., ed., Letters of Max Beerbohm, 1892–1956, London, 1988.

Hird 1935
Hird, F., H.M. Stanley: The Authorized Life
, London, 1935.

Hoffman 1938
Hoffman, W., With Stanley in Africa, London, 1938.

Horne 2001
Horne, A., ed., Telling Lives, London, 2001.

Jeal 2007
Jeal, T., Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa’s Greatest Explorer, London, 2007.

Jeal 2011
Jeal, T., Explorers of the Nile: The Triumph and Tragedy of a Great Victorian Adventure, London, 2011.

Jones 1989
Jones, E.W., Sir Henry M. Stanley: The Enigma: Review of the Early Years, Denbigh, Wales, 1989.

Laufer 1946
Laufer, J.J., Stanley, briseur d’obstacles, Geneva, 1946.

Leslie & Chapman 1978
Leslie, A., and P. Chapman, Madame Tussaud: Waxworker Extraordinary, London, 1978.

McLynn 1989
McLynn, F.J., Stanley: The Making of an African Explorer, London, 1989; reprint Oxford, 1991.

Marillier 1896
Marillier, H.C., ed., Men and Women of the Century: Being a Collection of Portraits and Sketches by Mr Rudolf Lehmann, London, 1896.

Matthews & Mellini 1982
Matthews, R.T., and P. Mellini, In ‘Vanity Fair’, London, 1982.

Millar 1992
Millar, O., The Victorian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen, Cambridge, 1992.

Montefiore 1890
Montefiore, A., Henry M. Stanley the African Explorer, London, 1890.

Newman 2006
Newman, J.L., Imperial Footprints: Henry Morton Stanley’s African Journeys, Dulles, VA, 2006.

Nicoll 1891
Nicoll, D.J., Stanley’s Exploits, or, Civilising Africa, Aberdeen, 1891.

Pepper 1994
Pepper, T., Edwardian Women Photographers, exh. booklet, National Portrait Gallery, London, 1994.

Pettit 2007
Pettitt, C., Dr Livingstone, I Presume?: Missionaries, Journalists, Explorers and Empire, London, 2007.

Pond 1901
Pond, J.B., Eccentricities of Genius, London, 1901.

Roberts 1874; 1878; 1885
Roberts, J.S., The Life and Explorations of David Livingstone, LL.D. Carefully compiled from reliable sources, London, 1874, 1878 (and a further ed. publ. 1885).

Rowlands 1872
Rowlands, C., H.M. Stanley: The Story of his Life from his Birth in 1841 to his Discovery of Livingstone, 1871, London, 1872.

Smith 1890
Smith, R., Stanley in Tropical Africa, London, New York and Melbourne, 1890.

Spielmann 1901
Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-Day, London, 1901.

Stanley 1872
Stanley, H.M., How I Found Livingstone, 2 vols, London, 1872.

Stanley 1878
Stanley, H.M., Through the Dark Continent, London, 2 vols, 1878.

Stanley 1885
Stanley, H.M., The Congo and the Founding of its Free State, 2 vols, London, 1885.

Stanley 1890
Stanley, H.M., In Darkest Africa, 2 vols, London, 1890.

Stanley 1895
Stanley, H.M., My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia, 2 vols, London, 1895.

Stanley 1909
Stanley, H.M., The Autobiography of Sir Henry Morton Stanley, ed. D. Stanley, London, 1909.

Stanley 1955
Stanley, H.M., Lettres inedites, ed. A. Maurice, Brussels, 1955.

Stanley & Neame 1961
Stanley, H.M., The Exploration Diaries of H.M. Stanley, ed. A. Neame, London, 1961.

Symonds 1891
Symonds, J.A., ‘Mrs. F.W.H. Myers’, No.7 in series Sun Artists, ed. W.A. Boord, London, 1891.

Tames 1973
Tames, R. , Henry Morton Stanley: An Illustrated Life of Henry Morton Stanley, 1841–1904, Aylesbury, 1973.

Waddy 1873
Waddy, F., Cartoon Portraits of Men of the Day, London, 1873.

Walery 1888–96
Walery [Stanislas Julian, Count Ostrorog], ed., Our Celebrities: A Portrait Gallery … Portraits by Walery, 5 vols (vol.1 ed. L. Engel), London, 1888–96.

Wasserman 1932
Wasserman, J., Bula Matari Das Leben Stanleys, Berlin, 1932.

Wauters 1890
Wauters, A.J., Stanley’s Emin Pasha Expedition, London, 1890.

Weinthal 1923
Weinthal, L., The Story of the Cape to Cairo Railway and River Route, from 1887 to 1922, 5 vols, London, 1923.

Werckmeister 1898–1901
Werckmeister, K., Das Neunzehnte Jahrhundert in Bildnissen, 4 vols, Berlin, 1898–1901.

Wilson 1902
Wilson, W.L., ed., The Imperial Gallery of Portraiture and Biographical Encyclopaedia, London, 1902.