Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), Explorer and journalist

Paintings, portraits, sculptures and prints
Undated portraits
Posthumous portraits
Photographs

Paintings, portraits, sculptures and printsback to top


publ. 1872
A number of sketches based on materials provided by Stanley from his expedition, and including likenesses of the sitter, were published as engravings (full and half-page) in Stanley 1872. The less significant appear in vol.1, pp.135 (also repr. Buel 1890, p.212; McLynn 1989, between pp.256–7; and Observer Magazine, 6 Oct. 1974, p.27), 280, 345 and vol.2, pp.361, 370, 421, 568, 577, 602, 612 (also repr. ILN, 9 Nov. 1872, p.445), 636, 642. All others are itemized below.

Design by unidentified artist, after material supplied by Stanley, half-length, seated on deck of boat, wearing helmet; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Graphic, 3 Aug. 1872, p.97 (captioned ‘Livingstone and Stanley going from Ujiji to Rusizi River’).

Design by Godefroy Durand, after material supplied by Stanley, signed bottom left, whole-length to right, with gun, hat raised to David Livingstone, Selim, Kalulu (Ndugu M’hali) and flag-bearer behind; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. Graphic, 3 Aug. 1872, pp.100, 101 (captioned ‘The Meeting of Stanley and Livingstone in Central Africa’; exh. David Livingstone and the Victorian Encounter with Africa, NPG, London, 1996 [5.8]); also repr. in colour Graphic, Stanley number, 30 Apr. 1890, p.3; and Tames 1973, p.15.

Design by ‘A B H’, after material supplied by Stanley, whole-length to front, behind Selim and Kalulu, flag-bearer behind; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Graphic, 3 Aug. 1872, p.104 (captioned ‘Stanley on his way to the coast’); and Farwell 1957, between pp.64–5.

Design by Charles Roberts, after material supplied by Lieutenant Henn, signed bottom left ‘C.R’, whole-length to right, right arm extended towards Livingstone, flag-bearer behind; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. ILN, 3 Aug. 1872, p.113 (captioned ‘The Finding of Dr. Livingstone. Return of Stanley to Bagamoyo’).

Design by ‘J.D.L’, whole-length to front, with full beard, left hand holding gun by the barrel; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Graphic, 10 Aug. 1872, frontispiece (captioned ‘Mr Stanley, his boy Kalulu, and the interpreter Selim’).

Design by H. Hall, after material supplied by Stanley, signed ‘H.H’, whole-length to right, on left-hand side, raising hat to Livingstone; untraced. Repr. in colour as half-page engr. ILN, 10 Aug. 1872, extra supplement; Farwell 1957, between pp.48–9; and Pettitt 2007, p.19.

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length to right, walking, gun resting over shoulder, Kalulu and Selim walking in front; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr., ILN, 17 Aug. 1872, p.156 (captioned ‘Stanley and his Retinue in Africa’).

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length to left, profile to left with beard, modelling the ‘Belted Poncho Wrapper’, shaking hands with Livingstone; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Tailor and Cutter, 27 Sept. 1872, between pp.597–8. Likeness after photograph by London Stereoscopic Co., see below, ‘1872’.

Design by unidentified artist, oval, head-and-shoulders, profile to left, with beard, wearing smart coat and top hat; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. The Hatter, 1 Oct. 1872, between pp.344–55. Likeness after photograph by London Stereoscopic Co., see below, ‘1872’.

Watercolour drawing on paper by Charles Auguste Loye (‘M.D.’ or ‘Montbard’), half-length behind desk, leaning forwards, right hand to chest; untraced.
Chromolithograph repr. Vanity Fair, 2 Nov. 1872, facing p.136 (captioned ‘He Found Livingstone’); Anstruther 1956, facing p.146; Tames 1973, p.20; and Matthews & Mellini 1982, p.168.

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length to right, seated, holding newspaper, with Livingstone also reading paper; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 6 Nov. 1872, p.460.

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, standing, centre left, raising hat to Livingstone; untraced. Repr. as engr. Stanley 1872, vol.2, facing p.412 (captioned ‘Dr Livingstone I presume…’; copy RGS, London, 226065 [Image S0011782]); Hall 1974, p.193; McLynn 1989, facing p.129; Bierman 1991, p.112; and Jeal 2011, p.269.

Design by J.B. Zweecker, signed bottom left, whole-length to left, seated, wearing hat and taking notes, with gun to the side; untraced. Repr. as engr. ILN, 9 Nov. 1872, p.445; and Stanley 1872, vol.2, facing p.494 (captioned ‘Our Levée at Magala, Urundi’; copy RGS, London, 336065 [Image S0013377]).

Design by J.B. Zweecker, signed bottom left, three-quarter-length, leaning out of a boat as Livingstone gestures towards the water; untraced. Repr. as engr. Stanley 1872, vol.2, facing p.504 (captioned ‘At the Mouth of the Rusizi’; copy RGS, London, 3360656 [Image S0013378]); and Jeal 2011, p.275.

publ. c.1872
Design by unidentified artist, whole-length to front, profile to left, wearing helmet, strolling through African landscape with gun resting over arm; untraced. Repr. as engr. La Revue Colonial Belge 1954, p.316 (copy MEPL, London, 10057174).

c.1872
Waxwork model by Joseph Randall (sculptor at Tussauds); ref. Leslie & Chapman 1978, p.179.

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to left, on right-hand side of composition, with helmet under his arm and flag-bearer behind, meeting Livingstone to left; untraced. Repr. Weinthal 1923, vol.1, p.144.

publ. 1873
Caricature drawing by Frederick Waddy, whole-length to left, huge head on small body, in jungle setting; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. by [W.J.] Welsh, Waddy 1873, p.124. Likeness after photograph by London Stereoscopic Co., see below, ‘1872’.

c.1873
Bronze sculpture by H.S. Liefchild; untraced. Exh. RA 1873 (1419).

publ. 1874
Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, to left-hand side of group of three men, representing New York Herald; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 28 Feb. 1874, frontispiece (captioned ‘The Ashantee War: Newspaper correspondents’ quarters in the camp at Prah-su’).

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, almost profile to left, walking at head of coffin as one of the pall bearers at Livingstone’s funeral in Westminster Abbey; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. ILN, 25 Apr. 1874, p.401.

Design by ‘J. N’, whole-length, profile to right, left hand clutched to chest, right hand holding hat; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 25 Apr. 1874, supplement covering Livingstone’s funeral, p.405 (captioned ‘Scene at the grave, Westminster Abbey’).

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, profile to left, standing on right, lifting hat; untraced. Repr. as engr. Roberts 1874, frontispiece (vignette detail only); Roberts 1878, frontispiece (captioned ‘The Meeting of Stanley and Livingstone’; copy RGS, London, 319553 [Image S0010561]); and Anstruther 1956, facing p.xiv.

c.1874
Medallion by A. Heness; untraced. Exh. RA 1874 (1592). Possibly the first RGS gold medal Stanley received after his reconciliation with the Society.

publ. 1876
Design by Theodore Wust, whole-length to front, standing on the prostrate body of an African, holding a rifle, wearing uniform and helmet; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Daily Graphic (New York), 16 Sept. 1876, frontispiece (copy NPG, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC, S/NPG.78.194).

1878
Oil on canvas, 758 x 615mm, by George Peter Alexander Healy, head-and-shoulders, facing forwards, shoulders turned to left, with greying hair but dark moustache, wearing black jacket and stiff white collar; Newberry L., Chicago, 095. Executed in Paris (where repr. as engr. by T de Mare, unknown source) upon his return from the trans-African expedition.

publ. 1878
A number of sketches by various artists, based on materials provided by Stanley from his expedition and including likenesses of the sitter, were published as (full and half-page) engravings in Stanley 1878, vol.1, pp.88, 115, 116, 229 (also repr. Graphic, 16 Feb. 1878, pp.105, 106 and 30 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.12; Farwell 1957, between p.64–5; and Tames 1973, p.25), 427 (also repr. Graphic, 9 Feb. 1878, p.145; and Farwell 1957, p.224) and vol.2, pp.233 (also repr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1890, special number, p.9; and Observer Magazine, 12 Oct. 1974, p.32), 300 (also repr. Graphic, 23 Feb. 1878, pp.200, 201 and 10 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.13; Farwell 1957, facing p.129; and Observer Magazine, 12 Oct. 1974, p.32), 369, 382, 747.

Design by W.H. Overend, whole-length, almost profile to right, wearing helmet, standing with his followers on board HMS Industry; untraced. Repr. as a double-page engr. ILN, 5 Jan. 1878, extra supplement.

Design by unidentified artist, after material supplied by Stanley; three-quarter-length, standing second from left in boat behind canoe firing gun; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. ILN, 2 Feb. 1878, p.104 (captioned ‘Mr H. M. Stanley Travels in Africa: The great war canoe on the Congo’).

Design by unidentified artist, half-length, standing to front in prow of the Lady Alice, gesturing with right arm, wearing helmet; untraced. Repr. as engr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1878, special number, ‘Stanley in Africa’, front cover.

Design by Charles Roberts, after material supplied by Stanley, whole-length to right, directing operations at the river bank; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1878, special number, ‘Stanley in Africa’, frontispiece (captioned ‘Hauling Canoes up Inkisi Falls’); and McLynn 1989, between pp.256–7.

Design by Charles Roberts, after material supplied by Stanley, whole-length to left, standing in centre of room beside colleague; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1878, special number, ‘Stanley in Africa’, p.4 (captioned ‘The Toss Up’).

Design by ‘W. P’, from material supplied by Stanley, whole-length to right, standing with gun over shoulder, talking with village chief; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1878, special number, ‘Stanley in Africa’, p.17 (captioned ‘The Village of Manyema’); also repr. Stanley & Neame 1961, between pp.176–7.

Design by W.H. Overend, three-quarter-length to front, standing, wearing hat, overlooking operations and gesturing with right hand; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1878, special number, ‘Stanley in Africa’, p.33 (captioned ‘Cutting a passage for Canoes’).

Design by unidentified artist, after material supplied by Stanley, whole-length to right, with gun under right arm, giving instructions to followers in the centre of the camp; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1878, special number, ‘Stanley in Africa’, p.37 (captioned ‘Encamped in Cannibal Land’).

Design by Godefroy Durand, two views, half-length, seated under canopy at stern of boat, wearing helmet (lower left-hand corner) and whole-length to right, leaning on stick, with Kalulu (top of page); untraced. Repr. as three-quarter-page engr. Graphic, 9 Feb. 1878, p.141 (captioned ‘Reception by Mtesa’s body guard, prime minister and chiefs’); and Buel 1890, p.234.

Design by unidentified artist, half-length to right, wearing helmet, under sun canopy of central boat; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Graphic, 9 Feb. 1878, p.146 (‘Setting out from M’sehazy haven to cross lake Taganyika’).

Design by Charles Roberts, whole-length to left, left hand on hip and right hand pointing, in centre of composition; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. ILN, 16 Feb. 1878, p.148 (captioned ‘Speaking at St James’s Hall’).

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length to left, seated at base of tree, wearing helmet, walking stick leaning against left shoulder; untraced. Repr. as double-page pull-out engr. Graphic, 16 Feb. 1878, p.161 (captioned ‘The Hot Springs of Mtagata’).

Design by Godefroy Durand, whole-length to right, wearing hat, pointing with stick in right hand; untraced. Repr. as double page fold-out engr. Graphic, 2 Mar. 1878, p.217 (captioned ‘Passage down the Luslaba River, negotiating a cataract’); and Farwell 1957, facing p.113.

Design by unidentified artist, half-length, standing in boat beside Livingstone; untraced. Repr. as engr. Roberts 1878, facing p.444 (captioned ‘Livingstone and Stanley on the Rusizi’; copy RGS, London, 319553 [Image S0014588]); and in colour Roberts 1885, p.440.

exh.1878
Bronze bust by Charlotte Dubray, signed on left shoulder; RGS, London, 100433.1. Exh. RA 1878 (1499). The bust was presented to the RGS by the Duke of Sutherland (by 1881). Another bronze cast sold at Sotheby’s, London, 2 June 2010 (67).
Plaster cast of the bust; Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, A.668.

publ. 1882
Design by (Edward) Linley Sambourne for Punch’s Fancy Portraits no.107, signed and dated, whole-length to left, striding forwards holding gun, with African following behind; untraced. Repr. as engr. Punch, 18 Oct. 1882, p.203 (captioned ‘Portrait of the Explorer Looking Out for M. de Brazza. “I’ll Let him Know if he Con-go on Like This”’).

1885
Oil on canvas, 1270 x 157mm, by Robert Gibb RSA, whole-length, facing front, standing, wearing frogged tunic, with perforated cap under right arm and left thumb tucked into belt; David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, Scotland (NT Scotland), 889. Exh. RA 1886 (521); Rome 1911 (181); repr. Tames 1973, p.2; and Country Life, 25 Apr. 1991, p.108 (detail).

Oil on canvas, 562 x 419mm, by Felix Moscheles, signed, dated and inscr. lower right ‘Henry M Stanley / by Moscheles / [18]85’, head-and-shoulders to front, in tropical dress; untraced; Christie’s 24 Sept. 2002 (56). Exh. Grosvenor G., London, 1885 (237); repr. as an engr. by R. Staudenbaur, ILN, 11 July 1885, p.33 and 30 Nov. 1889, p.684 (oval format).
Drawing after the painting by unidentified artist; MEPL, London, 10080861.

begun 1885
Oil on canvas by Dorothy Stanley, née Tennant, half-length slightly to left, looking to right, seated, wearing tropical uniform incl. frogged tunic, with map spread across lap, white hair and moustache; ?priv. coll. Exh. RA 1893 (615); Congo Exhibition, Tervuren, Belgium, 1897; repr. McLynn 1991, front cover. Although Stanley first gave sittings for the portrait in the summer of 1885, the RA exhibition date suggests that it was not finished until the 1890s. Alternatively it may have been altered before being exhibited after his return from the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition at the start of 1890. Stanley’s hair turned grey whilst he was in Africa 1887–89.

publ. 1885
A number of sketches, based on materials provided by Stanley and including likenesses of the sitter, were published as engravings in Stanley 1885, vol.1, p.275 and vol.2, pp. 106, 182.

1886
Plaster bust, 700mm high, by Conrad Dressler, signed and dated, head-and-shoulders, facing forwards, on decorative rectangular plinth; untraced; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (108). Exh. RA 1887 (1894); and Stanley and Africa Exhibition, Victoria G., London, 1890 (p.38 of exh. cat.); repr. postcard of exhibition at Victoria G., 1890 (view of ‘centre of hall’, where bust was displayed).

publ. 1887
Drawing by unidentified artist, whole-length, profile to right, operating machine-gun; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. ILN, 5 Feb. 1887, cover (frontispiece, captioned ‘Stanley with a Maxim Automatic Machine-Gun’); and Buel 1890, p.385.

Drawing by Charles-Paul Renouard, numerous busts of the sitter, taking up room in the RA, with despairing porter standing over them; untraced. Repr. as quarter-page engr. Graphic, 7 May 1887, p.485 (captioned ‘A Victim of Popularity – busts of Mr H. M. Stanley’).

Composite engr. by unidentified artist, after photographs of well-known individuals, A Memento of Her Majesty’s Jubilee Year – 1887, half-length, almost profile to right, second from right at lower right-hand corner; repr. Graphic, 17 Dec. 1887, between pp.672–3 (supplement, double-page pullout), with a key to the figures on p.678.
See also Alma-Tadema, Boehm, Leighton, Millais, Morris, Ruskin, Tenniel, Watts.

c.1887
Oil on canvas, 876 x 736mm, by Hubert von Herkomer, half-length to front, seated with hands clasped in lap; Bristol MAG, K29. Exh. RA 1887 (994); and RSPP 1891 (162);
Etching, 333 x 235mm, by Herkomer, head-and-shoulders, with head in detail; NPG D6838. Repr. Graphic, 8 Feb. 1890, frontispiece; and Appleton’s Annual Cyclopaedia 1889, p.777 (different state).

Bust by J.A. Raemackers, slightly profile to left; untraced. Exh. RA 1887 (1857).

1889
Wooden printing-block, 280 x 208 x 22mm, by E. Whymper after a portrait by Thomas D. Scott (possibly after the photograph by Elliott & Fry, see below, c.1885), signed ‘Whymper’, bust vignette, facing front, wearing uniform incl. frogged tunic; BM, London, 1911,0714.67.
Impression from block repr. Smith 1890, frontispiece (oval format); loose impression Getty Images, 3231291.

publ. 1889
Sketch by Herbert Ward, whole-length to right, profile to left, seated, wearing hat and holding pipe to mouth, left hand resting on left knee; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 14 Dec. 1889, p.753 (captioned ‘Camp at Kinshasa, on the Congo, with Tippo Tib’s Headquarters’); and Pall Mall Budget, 20 Feb. 1890, p.237.

Sketch by John Tenniel, whole-length to front, staggering out of clearing supporting Emin Pasha; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Punch, 14 Dec. 1889, p.283 (captioned ‘Rescued’).

1890
Oil on canvas, 619 x 470mm, by Heinrich von Angeli, signed and dated 1890, head-and-shoulders, slightly profile to right, wearing pale frogged tunic; Royal Coll., St James’s Palace, 2475. Repr. Werckmeister 1898–1901, vol.4, 1900, pl.400; and Millar 1992, p.15, no.43. Likeness possibly after photograph by F.W.H. Myers, see below, ‘c.1890’.

Oil on canvas by E.M. Merrick, signed by artist lower right-hand corner and inscr. ‘Cairo 1890’, half-length, slightly profile to left, standing, wearing green coat, left hand on belt and right holding long ?pole; RGS, London, 100707.1 [Image S0000068]. Exh. Grosvenor G., London, 1890 (140).
Cartoon by Harry Furniss; untraced. Repr. Punch, 7 June 1890, p.274 ‘Grosvenor Gems’ (humorous review of exhibition).

Bronze medal (‘The Stanley Medal’), 74mm diam., by Elinor Hallé, inscr. around the band ‘H. M. Stanley presented by the Royal Geographical Society’ and in centre ‘MD / CCC / XC’ (obverse), and ‘Congo / Nile / Ruwenzori / 1887=1889’ (reverse), head, profile to left (obverse), figure and decorative river scene (reverse); copies colls RGS, London, ARTEFACT E 4 (6); and V&A, London, 361-1890. Repr. ILN, 10 May 1890, p.579; and Spielmann 1901, p.170. A gold version was presented to Stanley, 5 May 1890.
Slightly larger version, 122mm diam.; offered to NPG July 1990 (rejected); RGS, London. Ref. Glendining’s, 18 Feb. 1987 (143). This edition of 24 was cast by James Moore.

Silver shield (‘The Stanley Testimonial Shield’), 610mm high, by F. Courthope for Elkington & Co., after designs by H.S. Wellcome, small portrait, profile to right, in medallion top centre; untraced. Ref. and repr. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (97); also repr. in souvenir booklet of the ‘American Testimonial Banquet’ to Stanley, 30 May 1890 (Wellcome L., London, RAMC/497, box 100).
Silver medal with same portrait on obverse; untraced. Ref. and repr. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (97); also repr. in souvenir booklet of the ‘American Testimonial Banquet’ to Stanley, 30 May 1890 (Wellcome L., London, RAMC/497, box 100).

Pencil with white heightening, 304 x 218mm, by Rudolf Lehmann, signed and dated ‘RL / 1890’ and signed and dated by sitter ‘Henry M Stanley / Oct 18th 1890’, head-and-shoulders, profile to left, shoulders to front; BM, London, 1906,0419.40. Repr. Marillier 1896, p.70.

White Parian statuette, 406mm high, by John A.P. MacBride for Minton, Stoke on Trent, signed and dated on plinth, whole-length to front, right hand carrying pair of binoculars and left hand holding a bible, wearing tropical clothing; untraced (offered to NPG 1960). Ref. Chas J. Sawyer Ltd, 9 May 1963 (1).
Possible variant; untraced; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (109).
Another possible variant, 420 x 110 x 130mm, by MacBride; Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, A.810.

publ. 1890
A number of sketches by various artists, based on materials provided by Stanley from his expedition and including likenesses of the sitter, were published as (full and half-page) engravings in Stanley 1890, vol.1, pp.172 (also repr. Hall 1974, p.304; and Batchelor 1990, p.81), 188 (also repr. McLynn 1991, between pp.116–17), 192, 193, 214, 224, 240, 246, 271 (also repr. Batchelor 1990, p.48), 288 (also repr. ILN, 5 July 1890, p.20), 276 (also repr. Farwell 1957, p.225; Tames 1973, p.35; and Batchelor 1990, p.84), 304 (also repr. Batchelor 1990, p.85), 323, 374 (also repr. Batchelor 1990, p.87), 414 (also repr. ILN, 5 July 1890, p.20; McLynn 1989, front cover [in colour]), 468 (also repr. Batchelor 1990, p.100) and vol.2, pp.62 (also repr. ILN, 5 July 1890, p.5), 138 (also repr. Graphic, 5 July 1890, p.5; and Batchelor 1990, p.108), 206, 238, 374, 384, 410 (also repr. Batchelor 1990, p.146), 412.

A number of other sketches by unidentified artists were published as (full and half-page) engravings in Buel 1890, pp.206, 207, 221, 222, 225, 226 (an alternative version in BNF, Paris; ref. Bridgeman AL, London, XIR 173488), 231, 233, 238, 248, 256, 263, 267, 271, 381, 387, 451 (copy MEPL, London, 10057174), 474, 489, 518, 549.

Drawing by W.H. Overend, after sketch by Herbert Ward, whole-length to right, on horseback beside American flag; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. ILN, 11 Jan. 1890, p.49 (captioned ‘Stanley’s Emin Pasha Relief Expedition leaving Matadi, on the Congo, with Tippoo Tib and his wives’); and Batchelor 1990, p.34.

Drawing by W.H. Overend, after sketch by Herbert Ward, whole-length to right, with right leg resting upon drum; untraced. Repr. as engr. by R. Taylor, ILN, 25 Jan. 1890, p.108 (captioned ‘The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition – departure from Yambuya Camp: giving final instructions to Major Barttelot’); Batchelor 1990, p.75; and McLynn 1991, between pp.116–17.

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to front, standing on bridge of ship, leaning against railings; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr., Graphic, 25 Jan. 1890, frontispiece (captioned ‘Mr H.M. Stanley’s Arrival at Zanzibar – Addressing the Officers and Men of H.M.S “Turquoise” After Church Service’).

Sketch by Thomas Walter Wilson, half-length, standing behind table, with right arm extended to receive order; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 1 Feb. 1890, frontispiece (captioned ‘Return of Mr Stanley’s expedition, the presentation of the order of Zanzibar by the British Consul, on board the Katoria at Mombasa’).

Sketch by W.H. Overend, whole-length, rear view, on deck of ship, waving his hat; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. ILN, 1 Feb. 1890, p.145 (captioned ‘Farewell to Africa – Stanley and his officers leaving Mombasa in the steam ship Katoria’).

Sketch by ‘R B’, head-and-shoulders (circular format), profile to left; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 1 Feb. 1890, p.129. Possibly based upon a photograph by John Fergus, see below, ‘April 1890, pose [a]’.

Drawing by unidentified artist, whole-length to right, ascending some steps, holding a cigar and carrying cane; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. Graphic, 1 Feb. 1890, p.137 (captioned ‘Mr Stanley’s Arrival at Cairo – Entering Shepheard’s Hotel After Having Visited the Khedive’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, half-length to front, standing, addressing other diners, wearing sash; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 8 Feb. 1890, p.160 (captioned ‘Banquet Given by the Egyptian Government at Cairo in Honour of Mr Stanley’s Arrival’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to right, seated, enjoying a cup of tea with Emin Pasha, which causes them to ‘forget all their troubles’; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. advertisement for the United Kingdom Tea Company Limited, ILN, 22 Feb. 1890, p.249 and elsewhere.

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length, slightly to left, standing, wearing hat, with cane; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr., ILN, 1 Mar. 1890, p.268 (captioned ‘Mr Stanley and his Comrades: Masai Warriors behind’); and Batchelor 1990, p.15.

Sketch by P. Naumann, after a sketch by J. Bell, whole-length, rear view, raising hat in the air with right arm, in centre of composition; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 1 Mar. 1890, p.269 (captioned ‘The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition – Mr Stanley and his Comrades at Mombasa’); and Batchelor 1990, p.165.

Sketch by W.H. Overend, whole-length to left, striding forwards to shake hands with Emin Pasha; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 3 Mar. 1890, special number, ‘Stanley and Emin’, front cover.

Sketch by Thomas Walter Wilson, whole-length to front, almost profile to left, gesturing with left arm; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 3 Mar. 1890, special number, ‘Stanley and Emin’, frontispiece (captioned ‘Mr Stanley showing his followers the promised land beyond the forest, Dec 1 1887’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, three-quarter-length, rear view, profile to right, wearing hat and crouching, lower left-hand corner; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 3 Mar. 1890, special number, ‘Stanley and Emin’, p.5 (captioned ‘Fight at Avi Sibba, August 13, 1879’).

Sketch by P. Naumann, after sketch by Lieutenant Stairs, whole-length, rear view, standing on crates, holding binoculars to face; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. by Forrestier, ILN, 3 Mar. 1890, special number, ‘Stanley and Emin’, p.8 (captioned ‘Fight in Majamboni’s Country’).

Drawing by Thomas Walter Wilson, whole-length to left, striding forwards to shake Emin Pasha’s hand, raising hat; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. ILN, 3 Mar. 1890, special number, ‘Stanley and Emin’, double-page pull-out between pp.12–13 (captioned ‘The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, after sketch by Lieutenant Stairs, whole-length, profile to left, standing, wearing hat, holding pair of binoculars to face; untraced. Repr. as double-page engr. by Forrestier, ILN, 3 Mar. 1890, special number, ‘Stanley and Emin’, p.17 (captioned ‘First view of Lake Albert Nyanza, Dec 13, 1887’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, after sketch by R.H. Nelson, whole-length, rear view, profile to left, mounted on donkey beside Emin Pasha; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. by Forrestier, ILN, 3 Mar. 1890, special number, ‘Stanley and Emin’, p.25 (captioned ‘Mr Stanley’s Caravan with Emin Pasha’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length, facing forwards, wearing large coat and cape, holding hat in right hand; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 3 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.26 (captioned ‘Mr Stanley’s Arrival at the Gare de Midi, Brussels’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to right, standing, wearing hat and holding pipe, watching Emin Pasha voluntarily retreat back into the jungle after having ‘rescued’ him; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Pall Mall Budget, 10 Apr. 1890, p.453 (captioned ‘Back to the Dark Continent’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to right, with right arm extended and holding hat by the brim in left hand, at interview with the Prince of Wales; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Graphic, 19 Apr. 1890, p.443 (captioned ‘Mr Stanley’s Arrival at Cannes – Interview Between The Explorer and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, half-length, slightly profile to right, standing behind table wearing sash, speaking at the banquet given in his honour at the Town Hall, Brussels; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Graphic, 26 Apr. 1890, p.486 (captioned ‘Mr Stanley at Brussels’).

Drawing by unidentified artist, whole-length to left, riding a donkey, surrounded by his African followers; untraced. Repr. as full-page colour engr. Graphic, 30 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, front cover.
Chromolithograph by James Upton, based on this design, repr. inside the lid of a children’s board game, ‘The Stanley Souvenir’; untraced; Christie’s 24 Sept. 2002 (112).

Sketch by Godefroy Durand, whole-length to front, standing at back of scene, left hand on hip, wearing sun hat; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Graphic, 30 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.10 (captioned ‘Forest Dwarfs Eating Snakes’); and Daily Graphic, 9 July 1890, Stanley supplement no.2, p.17.

Drawing by Lance Calkin, head-and-shoulders, profile to left ,with white beard and moustache, wearing dark cravat; untraced. Repr. as engr. Graphic, 30 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.11; and Daily Graphic, Stanley supplement no.3, 12 July 1890, p.17.

Sketch by unidentified artist, three-quarter-length to front, standing in his African uniform, holding a cup of Bovril; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. advertisement, Graphic, 30 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.29 (captioned ‘Stanley recruits his strength with Bovril’) and elsewhere.

Drawing by ?J. Marie, whole-length to front, left hand on hip and right hand holding walking stick, emerging from the forest after 106 days; untraced. Repr. as full-page colour engr. Graphic, 30 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.31 (captioned ‘Daylight at Last!’); and Daily Graphic, 17 July 1890, Stanley supplement no.4, p.17.

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length to left, with right arm extended, wearing soft cap, torch bearers behind; untraced. Repr. as full-page colour engr. Graphic, 30 Apr. 1890, Stanley number, p.33 (captioned ‘Meeting of Emin Pasha and Mr Stanley at Kavalli, April 29 1888’); Daily Graphic, 23 July 1890, Stanley supplement no.6, p.17; Tames 1973, p.36; and McLynn 1991, between p.116 and 117.

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length, wearing long coat and bowler hat, shaking hands with woman in the crowd; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 2 May 1890, frontispiece (captioned ‘H.M. Stanley’s return to England’); and Batchelor 1990, p.166.

Sketch by François Galliard, whole-length, slightly to right, standing, wearing sash, greeting a figure at the top of steps; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 3 May 1890, p.496 (captioned ‘Homage to Stanley / Fete given in Honour of the Explorer at the Bourse, Brussels’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, half-length, wearing bowler hat, walking through the parting crowd on arrival at Admiralty Pier, Dover; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 3 May 1890, p.496 (captioned ‘The Return of Mr H.M. Stanley’).

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, profile to right, raising hat high in right hand in greeting to Mr Punch, who in turn does the same; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Punch 3 May 1890, p.211 (captioned ‘Stanley Africanus!’)

Sketch by unidentified artist, Stanley’s head on lion’s body, upright and extending a paw to a lady at a society reception; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Pall Mall Budget, 8 May 1890, p.586 (captioned ‘The Lion of the London Season’).

Sketch by W.H. Overend, half-length, right hand resting upon table, addressing the audience from behind a lectern, 5 May 1890; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 10 May 1890, frontispiece (captioned ‘Meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, Monday May 5, in the Royal Albert Hall: Mr Stanley Speaking’); and Batchelor 1990, p.169.

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to right, standing at a lectern before a crowd, 2 May 1890; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. by R. Taylor, ILN, 10 May 1890, p.580 (captioned ‘Meeting at St James’s Hall … To welcome Mr Stanley’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, half-length, standing behind desk in lower right-hand corner of image, lecturing before the RGS; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr., Graphic, 10 May 1890, frontispiece (captioned ‘Mr Stanley at the Albert Hall’).

Sketch by P. Naumann, half-length to right, behind platform rail, wearing sash; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. ILN, 17 May 1890, p.161 (captioned ‘Presentation of the Freedom of the City of London to Mr Stanley at Guildhall’); and Batchelor 1990, p.168.

Sketch by (Edward) Linley Sambourne, whole-length to front, clutching hat, fending off invitations fired from the bows of the inhabitants of the ‘Society Islands’; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Punch, 17 May 1890, p.230 (captioned ‘The Modern Hercules and the Pygmies’).

Sketch by John Tenniel, whole-length to left, prodding a lion with the end of his cane as it places its foot upon a map of Africa; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Punch, 24 May 1890, p.247 (captioned ‘Not such a fool as he looks!’).

Sketch by (Edward) Linley Sambourne, whole-length to left, holding gun, gesturing towards bound slave woman representing East Africa, with ivory tusks at her feet; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Punch, 7 June 1890, p.266 (captioned ‘Embarrassing’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length, slightly profile to left, at the Guildhall reception; untraced. Repr. as quarter-page engr. advertisement for the Cellular Clothing Company, ILN, 28 June 1890, p.830.

Sketch by W. Goble, whole-length to left, with long coat and cane, with bride Dorothy Tennant on his arm, 12 July 1890; untraced. Repr. at centre of full-page engr. Pall Mall Budget, 17 July 1890, p.904 (captioned ‘The Wedding of the Season; The Stanley marriage at Westminster Abbey’).

Composite illustration by unidentified artist, various views of Stanley’s head as it appeared in numerous publications; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Pall Mall Budget, 17 July 1890, p.907 (captioned ‘Stanley as he is sketched’).

Sketch by Sydney Prior Hall, three-quarter-length, standing to right of Dorothy Tennant at the altar; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Graphic, 19 July 1890, p.69 (captioned ‘Mr Stanley’s Wedding – The Ceremony in Westminster Abbey’).

Sketch by P. Naumann, whole-length, rear view, kneeling at altar; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. ILN, 19 July 1890, p.69 (‘Marriage of Mr H. M. Stanley and Miss Dorothy Tennant in Westminster Abby, July 12’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length, dressed as goalkeeper, standing between two posts; untraced. Repr. as engr. (242 x 172mm) ?Rare Bits, 15 Nov. 1890 (captioned ‘Stanley’s Hot Goal’; copy RGS, London, PR/026806 (A) [Image S0012832]).

Sketch by Hare and ?S.H. Sone, whole-length to left, standing, pointing down to a sign reading ‘In darkest Africa’; untraced. Repr. as engr. (242 x 170mm) in unidentified periodical, 22 Nov. 1890 (captioned ‘John Bull and Stanley / Step down Stanley and let me see behind you!’; copy coll RGS, London, PR/026805 (B) [Image S0020681]); and others.

Sketch by John Tenniel, whole-length, rear view, profile to right, appealing to the figure of Justice who stands beside the graves of two of Stanley’s officers; untraced. Repr. as full-page engr. Punch, 22 Nov. 1890, p.247 (captioned ‘Between the Quick and the Dead’).

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, standing to left-hand side, raising his hat; untraced. Repr. (175 x 125mm), Stanley and Africa Exhibition, exh. cat., Victoria G., 1890, front cover (RGS, London, Archive: HMS/7/1).

c.1890
Etching, 585 x 457mm, by Henry MacBeth-Raeburn; untraced; Christie’s, 24 and 25 Sept. 2003 (166).

Designs by unidentified artist for Stanley in Africa picture book relating to the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, whole-length to right, peering from a high African vantage point (front cover), plus various illustrations within (based on published images); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7000.

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, profile to right, wearing hat and shaking hands with Emin Pasha; untraced. Repr. as jigsaw puzzle, see Hannas 1972; and Pettitt 2007, p.194.

1891
Statue by Charles Bell Birch, head-and-shoulders to front, profile to right, wearing frogged tunic; untraced. Exh. RA 1891 (2001); repr. Cassell’s RA Pictures 1891, p.61.

publ. 1891
Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to front, standing in background with feet apart and arms crossed, wearing hat; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Casati 1891, vol.2, facing p.158; and Graphic, 14 Mar. 1891, p.295 (captioned ‘The First Meeting of Emin Pasha and Stanley’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length, standing to front before African chief; untraced. Repr. as half-page engr. Casati 1891, vol.2, facing p.158 (captioned ‘Ntali’s present to Stanley’).

Sketch by unidentified artist, whole-length to front, standing in self-pitying attitude, hands clasped in front of chest and head bent to right, at his feet hat with the sign ‘spare a copper’, the body of an African hanging from a tree behind; untraced. Repr. as engr. Nicoll 1891, frontispiece; and Pettitt 2007, p.189.

1894
Plaster cast, 271mm long, inscr. in ink ‘cast of H. M. Stanley’s hand 1894’ and in pencil ‘Cast of H. M. Stanley’s hand taken June 1894, appears and probably is considerably bigger than life – owing to pressure of plaster and involuntary movement of fingers’, hand on rectangular base with cut corners; untraced; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (179).

1895
Cartoon (cutting from unidentified publication, captioned ‘In Darkest Parliament’) in Dorothy Tennant Diary; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5943.

1897
Ink and wash caricature drawing by Max Beerbohm; see NPG 3857.

1899
Caricature drawing by George Roland Halkett, signed bottom left ‘G R H’, whole-length, slightly profile to right, standing to front with hands on hips, top hat in right hand and flower in left lapel; untraced. Repr. ‘Silhouettes of Parliament’, Pall Mall Magazine, vol.19, 1899, p.120.

1890s
Brown-ground glazed pottery jug, 197mm high, by unidentified artist for Doulton, commemorating the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, head only, slightly profile to left within moulded wreath on body; untraced; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (111).

late 1890s
Composite figurine, 675mm high, by unidentified artist, whole-length, in uniform with helmet, revolver at waist, binoculars in right hand and holding a staff in left hand; untraced; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (110).

before 1900
Oil on canvas, 1170 x 850mm, by Carlo Ademollo, whole-length to left, on horseback, wearing jungle helmet; untraced (offered to NPG 1938; see letters between Domenico Achilli and C.K. Adams, Nov. 1938). Ref. NPG NoS (H.M. Stanley).

publ. c.1900
Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, profile to right, in centre, lifting his hat as he advances towards Livingstone; untraced. Repr. by Missionary Soc. as glass magic lantern slide, 83 x 83mm (NPG D18406).


Undated portraitsback to top


African ivory grip of walking stick carved by unidentified artist, silver collar inscr. ‘H. M. Stanley’, bust, wearing helmet; untraced; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002.

Cast-iron plaque by unidentified artist, head only, wearing peaked hat with perforated flap; priv. coll. Ref. NPG SB (Stanley).

Bronze statue by unidentified artist, whole-length, standing, wearing hat, raising left arm above head and holding walking stick in right hand; formerly located above the Stanley Pool, DRC; vandalized and pulled down after 1970, fragments in Kinshasa (formerly Leopoldville), DRC (repr. Jeal 2007, pl.40). Repr. Observer Magazine, 13 Oct. 1974, p.31.
Another version erected in Kinshasa; possibly destroyed. Repr. Jeal 2007, pl.29.

Design by unidentified artist, whole-length, profile to left, looking back at Livingstone as his party begins the return journey (1871); scene on David Livingstone Memorial, David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, Scotland (NT Scotland). Repr. Wellcome L., London, ICV No.19266 (where titled ‘Renunciation. farewell to Stanley’).

Design for advertisement by unidentified artist, whole-length, standing in dense jungle, wearing 1890s African uniform, with porter carrying on his head a Tabloid brand medical case by Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., which Stanley took with him to Africa on the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition; untraced. Photo-reproduction (140 x 80mm) coll. Wellcome L., London, LIF/M/I/PR/E52.

Cloth woven with pure silk, 135 x 95mm framed in passe-partout, by T. Shewers, Coventry, bust to left, profile to left, wearing helmet, in middle age, with American and British flags interwoven at bottom of design; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7002.


Posthumous portraitsback to top


early 20th century
Painted cloth, 744 x 744mm, by unidentified artist, inscr. ‘H.M.STANLEY / HEROIC AFRICAN / EXPLORER’, half-length, slightly profile to left with long moustache, wearing tie and hat, in centre of design with officers; RGS, London, TEXA.

publ. 1919
Sketch by Harry Furniss, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, with hooked nose and scowl; untraced. Repr. Furniss [1919], p.129.

1925
Pastel drawing, 511 x 409mm, by Alice Pike, head-and-shoulders, facing front, with white collar and full moustache, c.1874 about to set out on his second African expedition; Smithsonian American AM, Washington, DC, 130.DUP53. Repr. Observer Magazine, 13 Oct. 1974, p.27.

publ. 1946
Slight images by unidentified artist (many after photographs) of Stanley’s life; repr. Laufer 1946, pp.16, 33, 39, 49, 39, 75, 85, 97, 113, 137, 151, 161, 187, 193, 205, 217, 233, 249.

2010–11
Bronze statue by Nick Elphick, lifesize, whole-length to left, profile to left, standing with right arm extended; outside Denbigh ML, Denbighshire, Wales. Unveiled Mar. 2011.


Photographsback to top


The Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium, holds a large quantity of material on Stanley (including correspondence, journals and photographs), much of it drawn from the family archives formerly preserved at Furze Hill. The contents of two photograph albums are currently viewable online; see the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153
and Album 5154.

c.1855
Photograph, 65 x 48mm in oval mount, by James Laing, half-length, facing front, wearing waistcoat; prints colls Ceiriog Memorial Inst., Glyn Ceiriog, Wales; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5219, 5220, 5293 (head only vignette, 151 x 103mm) and Album 5153. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (2); repr. Stanley 1909, p.69 (captioned ‘H. M. Stanley at the age of fifteen’); and Bierman 1991, p.14.

c.1860
Photograph, 82 x 70mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length, facing forwards, dressed in overly large clerk’s suit and bow tie, against a decorative background, the plate partially coloured with green; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153, 5221, 5295 and 5274 (Kodak copy print, c.1909). Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (4); repr. as engr. Strand, vol.1, 1891, p.284; and Farwell 1957, between pp.48–9.
The earliest known photograph of Stanley taken in America.

c.1863
Photograph, 120 x 93mm, by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders vignette, slightly turned to right, eyes forward, plentiful hair, seated in gilt-backed chair; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5287. Repr. as engr. Strand, vol.1, 1891, p.284; Tames 1973, p.4; McLynn 1989, facing p.128; and Jeal 2007, pl.7.
Carte-de-visite version, 100 x 60mm, inscr. by Stanley ‘Always – your loving Nephew Henry Stanley the S.S. Minnesota’; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (5).
Photogravure (oval format) after this photograph; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5274 (two Kodak copy prints, c.1909). Repr. Stanley 1909, p.167; Hird 1935, facing p.34; and La Revue Colonial Belge, 1954, p.311 (reversed).

1865
Photograph, 20 x 10mm oval framed in passe-partout, by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders, slightly profile to right, Spring 1865; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5296.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, 163 x 121mm, possibly same image as above, head-and-shoulders vignette, slightly profile to right, eyes directed downwards; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5229.

1866
Carte-de-visite by Abdullah Feres, Constantinople, three-quarter-length to front, left arm resting upon carved shelf in photographer’s studio, wearing ‘semi-naval officers’ coat and vest with gold lace on the sleeves and Turkish buttons’, coat fastened to neck; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (7).

Photographs by unidentified photographer, wearing same coat as in item above (with added shoulder detail, coat lapels buttoned back) but with different props and hair and presumably later, two known poses:
(a) three-quarter-length, standing in photographer’s studio; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. Hall 1974, p.147; Bierman 1991, p.44 (head-and-shoulders vignette); and Jeal 2007, pl.9.
Sketch by unidentified artist based on (a), head-and-shoulders, slightly profile to right; repr. Rowlands 1872, title page.
(b) head-and-shoulders vignette, slightly more profile to right, with garment beneath coat buttoned up; coll. Paul Frecker.

c.1866
Photograph by unidentified photographer, 90 x 55mm, whole-length to front, seated, wearing hat at angle, beside ?Lewis Noe; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5155.

c.1867
Carte-de-visite, 120 x 93mm, by Rockwell & Co., New York, inscr. by Stanley on verso ‘To my dear Uncle and Aunt with the kind regards of their loving nephew … alias Mr. Henry Stanley. Care Mrs NacNeal 20c Canal St, New York’, whole-length to front, standing, holding hat in right hand, which rests upon chairback; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (5); repr. as engr. Strand, vol.1, 1891, p.284 (captioned ‘age 26’).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, 90 x 54mm, possibly from same session as above, head-and-shoulders vignette, profile to right; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

1868
Carte-de-visite, 120 x 93mm, by Schier & Schoefft, Alexandria and Cairo, inscr. on mount ‘To the “Times of India” Special from his brother Stanley “New York Herald”, Correspondent’, head-and-shoulders vignette, to front, slightly profile to right, with moustache; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Ref. Phillips, 16 Mar. 1995 (545).

Carte-de-visite, 91 x 52mm, by C.H. Nedley after an earlier photograph taken in Alexandria, head-and-shoulders vignette, facing front, shoulders to right, wearing dark suit, with dark hair and moustache, on his return from Abyssinia, June 1868; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Exh. David Livingstone and the Victorian Encounter with Africa, NPG, London, 1996 (5.23); repr. Jeal 2007, pl.10; Pettitt 2007, p.180; and Jeal 2011, between pp.318–19.

1869
Carte-de-visite, 106 x 64mm, by unidentified photographer, inscr. ‘Burbura Somali Land 1 January 1869 still your friend Khan Barhadoor alias Stanley’ (although possibly taken in Cairo), whole-length, seated on floor with crossed legs, wearing Arab dress – scarf tied around head and smoking pipe – on a brief visit to Berbera (Somali coast); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5222 and Album 5153. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (7); repr. Jeal 2007, pl.12.
Sketch by unidentified artist probably based on this photograph, head-and-shoulders, facing forwards, wearing turban and neck scarf; untraced. Repr. Hall 1974, p.166 (captioned ‘Dressed as Khan Bahadoor, the Arab’); and Jones 1989, frontispiece.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, half-length to right in oval, profile to right, seated, wearing bow tie, with small goatee beard; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Carte-de-visite, 90 x 60mm, by C.H. Nedley, Alexandria, inscr. on verso ‘with the wish to be remembered by one whom I esteem so highly, I subscribe myself Henry M Stanley’, whole-length to front, standing, wearing solar topee, with sword at belt and holding a rifle, posing with a local child; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photograph, 83 x 75mm, by unidentified photographer, Madrid, whole-length to front, standing in photographer’s studio, left hand on hip and leaning with right elbow against pedestal; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photograph, 90 x 60mm, by unidentified photographer, Madrid, head-and-shoulders vignette, profile to right, eyes to front, with moustache and small goatee; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

1870
Photographs by Abdullah Feres, Constantinople, Apr. 1870, three known poses:
(a) whole-length to left, standing behind chair, wearing evening dress with thin bowtie; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) carte-de-visite, 90 x 55mm, dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders vignette, facing front; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5225. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (24); repr. NPG SB (Stanley).
(c) 155 x 115mm, dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders, profile to left; prints colls Wellcome L., London, WF/M/I/PR/E52; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153, Album 5154 and 5224 (carte-de-visite, 91 x 15mm). Repr. as photogravure by Frederick John Jenkins, Stanley 1895, vol.1, frontispiece.

1872
Gelatin silver print by unidentified photographer, whole-length to left, standing on far right with gun resting over shoulder, full beard, May 1872; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (44 [Album 1]); repr. Hall 1974, p.205; McLynn 1989, between pp.128–9; Bierman 1991, p.130; and Jeal 2007, pl.15 (captioned ‘Stanley entering Bagamoyo … with Selim and Kalulu’). Christie’s sale catalogue makes reference to two further prints of this type (44, p.51 [Album 1]). These remain untraced and it is not clear if they are variant poses or duplicate prints.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length to front, seated at a table, legs parted and barrel of gun resting across thigh, with beard, posed with Livingstone’s son Oswell on meeting RGS’s relief expedition, May 1872; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (44 [Album 1]). Christie’s sale catalogue makes reference to one further print of this type (44, p.51 [Album 1]). This remains untraced and it is not clear if it is a variant pose or duplicate print.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, 117 x 110mm, with Selim and Kalulu in the Seychelles, July 1872; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5236.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, 72 x 60mm in oval mount, whole-length, almost profile to right, seated on grass with legs folded, beside J.C. Parkinson wearing hat, South Downs above Brighton, Aug. 1872; RGS, London, HMS 1/5/2 [Image S0013717]. Repr. McLynn 1898, facing p.128; and Jeal 2002, pl.22.

Carte-de-visites by the London Stereoscopic Co., six known poses:
(a) 81 x 62mm, half-length, profile to left, seated, left arm resting along desk in front of him, wearing bowtie; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 9: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls NPG x32118 and NPG Ax46283; RGS, London, PR/052152 (B); Wellcome L., London, V 27206; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 6910.
Another version (image reversed); Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (9).
(b) 100 x 62mm, nearly full-face, both elbows on chairback, right hand supporting head; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 9: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls NPG x76513; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and 5158 (85 x 61mm); and RGS, London, PR/052152 (C). Repr. as engr. Graphic, 17 Aug. 1872, p.156 (oval format); Stanley 1909, p.292; Anstruther 1956, frontispiece (as photogravure); and Jeal 2007, p.21.
(c) 85 x 63mm, almost profile to left, seated at table with writing materials, quill in hand; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 9: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls NPG x12934; and RGS, London, PR/052152 (D).
(d) 100 x 63mm, as (c) above, head bent downwards towards writing paper; V&A, London, 897-1956.
(e) 85 x 60mm, half-length, body to front, face three-quarter profile to left; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 9: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls NPG x12935; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and 5159; and RGS, London, PR/052152 (F). Repr. as engr. ILN, 17 Aug. 1872, p.161 and 6 Feb. 1878, p.2 (oval format); Penny Illustrated Paper, 2 Oct. 1875, frontispiece (oval format); Anon 1875, front cover; and Strand, vol.1, 1891, p.284.
Another version (image reversed); Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (9). Repr. as engr. Roberts 1874, title page.
(f) half-length, body to front, fully profile to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.


Photographs by the London Stereoscopic Co., nine known poses:
(a) cabinet card, 145 x 100mm, standing, almost profile to left, left hand holding gun by upper part of barrel; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug 15: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152 (K) [Image S0005844]; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5155 and 5297.
Carbon carte-de-visite, 90 x 57mm (cropped version); colls NPG x27584 and V&A, London, 513-1956; additional versions Christie’s, 24–5 Sept. 2003 (460) and 24 Sept. 2004; and coll. Howarth-Loomes. Repr. Stanley 1872, vol.1, frontispiece; and in calendar, publ. 1892 (ref. MEPL, London, 10009327).
Charcoal drawing, 914 x 661mm, after (a) by Dorothy Stanley, signed and dated lower right with initials ‘DT’ and inscr. lower left ‘H. M. Stanley / 1872’; untraced. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (23).
(b) reclining position, Kalulu standing by, near two guns; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/19) [image not attached].
(c) gelatin silver cabinet card, 130 x 96mm, head-and-shoulders in oval, almost profile to left; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls Wellcome L., London, V 27207; and NPG x32119. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (453); repr. as an engr. by H.P. Hansen (unidentified publication, 19th century); and Stanley 1909, p.264.
Photogravure (rectangular format) repr. Coupland 1945, between pp.144–5; and Jeal 2007, pl.16.
Head-and-shoulders vignette, 148 x 106mm; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152 (L); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153, 5285 (124 x 95mm), 5234 (oval).
(d) as (c), profile to left with chin strap of helmet slightly further forwards; prints colls King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153; and V&A, London, 899-1956 (100 x 63mm).
(e) carte-de-visite, 85 x 62mm, profile to right, seated on ground with legs crossed, holding in hand a cup presented to him by Kalulu; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints RGS, London, PR/052152 (E) [Image S0014473] and PR/052152 (I). Exh. David Livingstone and the Victorian Encounter with Africa, NPG, London, 1996 (5.18); repr. Observer Magazine, 6 Oct. 1974, p.24; and Pettitt 2007, p.165.
Albumen carte-de-visite, 90 x 62 mm; prints colls NPG x45981; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Album 5153; and V&A, London, 895-1956.
(f) carte-de-visite, 84 x 61mm, whole-length, almost profile to left, standing with Kalulu, left hand on pistol case in belt; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153; and RGS, London, PR/052152 (G) [Image S0014475]. Repr. Tames 1973, p.11; and McLynn 1989, between pp.128–9.
(g) carte-de-visite, 86 x 60mm, nearly full-face, standing, right elbow leaning on muzzle of gun, left hand grasping the barrel; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/19); prints colls King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153; and RGS, London, PR/052152 (J) [Image S0014474]. Repr. Tames 1973, front cover; and Jeal 2007, back cover (in colour).
Albumen carte-de-visite, 90 x 62 mm; NPG x46623.
Other versions; colls Wellcome L., London, 13610i; priv. coll.
(h) carte-de-visite, 90 x 61mm, almost profile to right, standing with Kalulu, holding gun in both hands; reg. for copyright 1872 Aug. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/19); RGS, London, PR/052152 (H) [Image S0014472]. Repr. The Times, 7 June 1991, p15. Another version; Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (453).
(i) carbon carte-de-visite, 80 x 54mm, nearly full-face, standing with Kalulu, each with a gun, the former holding his under right arm; prints colls NPG x128738; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. Farwell 1957, between pp.64–5; Stanley & Neame 1961, facing p.160; McLynn 1989, between pp.128–9; Sunday Telegraph, 14 Jan. 1990; and Jeal 2007, front cover (in colour, with Kalulu removed).

Photographs by James Laing, three known poses:
(a) head-and-shoulders, three-quarter face, looking to right; reg. for copyright 1872 July 20: National Archives (COPY 1/19) [image not attached].
(b) three-quarter-length, standing, left hand on edge of table, cap in right hand; reg. for copyright 1872 July 20: National Archives (COPY 1/19) [image not attached].
(c) whole-length, standing, leg advanced, right hand on hip and left on edge of table, cap on head; reg. for copyright 1872 July 20: National Archives (COPY 1/19) [image not attached].

1873
Photographs by Jeremiah Gurney & Son, New York, four known poses:
(a) whole-length to right, standing with arms folded across chest, holding gun by the end of the barrel, wearing African uniform, Kalulu standing to left-hand side with African shield; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) dressed as in (a), seated with gun resting against right thigh; David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, Scotland (NT Scotland), 163. Repr. Bookman, vol.19, 1904, p.339 (where photographer named as ‘Rockwood’).
(c) dressed as in (a), seated, helmet off and to the side, consulting map with Kalulu to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(d) albumen carte-de-visite, 90 x 58mm, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, wearing helmet; NPG, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC, S/NPG.80.156. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (28).

Photographs by Jeremiah Gurney & Son, New York, three known poses:
(a) head-and-shoulders, shoulders to right, almost profile to right, coat open and wearing vertically striped tie, with goatee beard and moustache; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders, shoulders to front, almost profile to right; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 (oval format).
(c) dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders to front, almost profile to right, coat fastened; untraced.

Photograph, 40 x 95mm, by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders vignette, shoulders slightly to right, profile to right, with goatee beard and ribbon tied in bow around neck in the American style; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 (very faint).

Photographs by unidentified photographer, two known poses:
(a) 70 x 65mm, half-length, profile to right, leaning forwards with arms crossed and propped against chairback, wearing suit with cravat and pin, small goatee beard; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) 105 x 65mm, dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders vignette, profile to right; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

c.1873
Photograph by the London Stereoscopic Co., in group including Winwood Reade and two others in front of tent and huts on the Gold Coast; reg. for copyright 1874 Apr. 9: National Archives (COPY 1/25) [image not attached].

1874
Photographs by Maull & Fox, ‘taken one week before his departure from England in 1874’, four known poses:
(a) carte-de-visite, 92 x 59mm, head-and-shoulders, turned to front, head slightly profile to right, with moustache and patterned cravat; RGS, London, 052152 (A). Repr. La Revue Colonial Belge 1954, p.311; and Hall 1974, p.23.
(b) dressed as in (a), slightly less profile to right; repr. as photogravure Stanley 1878, vol.1, frontispiece.
(c) 120 x 80mm in oval frame, dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders to front, profile to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5291.
(d) dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders vignette, slightly profile to left, eyes directed to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Carte de visite, 92 x 50mm, by ?V.B. Kardaity, whole-length to front, seated in chair, wearing hat, with bloodhound, before his second African expedition; prints colls Wellcome L., London, 13609i; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and Album 5155. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (31, inscr. in contemporary hand on mount ‘Stanley. 1874 in Afrika’).

1877
Photograph by unidentified photographer, central dark figure, Aug. 1877; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5154. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (44 [Album 1]), where captioned ‘Expedition landing at Kabinda’ (the beach at the mouth of the Congo).

Photographs by J. Silveira, two known poses:
(a) 187 x 152mm, to front, seated, holding a sextant and wearing helmet, surrounded by his men and the Portuguese Expedition (Ivens, Capello, Serpa Pinto) posing on a rooftop; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5194 (oval format). Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (44 [Album 2]), where captioned ‘The arrival at Loanda’.
(b) variant image, with dogs in the foreground; repr. as photogravure Stanley & Neame 1961, facing p.177.

Photographs by Richard Cobden Phillips, two known poses:
(a) Stanley and expedition; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov 13: National Archives (COPY 1/39) [image not attached], described as ‘landing at Cabenda’. Ref. Christie’s, 7–8 Apr. 2004 (453).
(b) seated on armchair with book in left hand; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov 13: National Archives (COPY 1/39) [image not attached].

Photographs by unidentified photographer, taken at Loanda, Aug.–Sept. 1877, two known poses:
(a) 187 x 152mm, whole-length to right, seated on floor with legs crossed, in photographer’s studio with three Europeans and three porters, describing his travels to the Portuguese Expedition (Ivens, Capello, Serpa Pinto); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5195. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (44 [Album 2]); repr. Jeal 2011, front cover.
(b) 110 x 60mm, whole-length, standing centrally between a European and an African, wearing helmet; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photographs by S.B. Barnard, the gardens at Admiralty House, Simonstown, Cape Town, Oct. or Nov. 1877, five known poses:
(a) profile to left, seated with legs crossed, head resting on right hand, left hand on helmet; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov. 11: National Archives (COPY 1/39); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 6910. Repr. as engr. Stanley 1878, vol.2, frontispiece (oval format); Buel 1890, p.383 (head-and-shoulders only); La Revue Colonial Belge 1954, p.311 (cropped); Observer Magazine, 13 Oct. 1974 (cropped), p.25; Hall 1974, p.95; and Bierman 1991, p.212.
(b) 143 x 203mm, standing near fountain, hands clasped at waist, wearing helmet, with Arab guard; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov. 11: National Archive (COPY 1/39); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5191.
(c) seated with legs crossed, wearing helmet, with two Arab chiefs; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov. 11: National Archive (COPY 1/39). Repr. Newman 2006, front cover; and Jeal 2007, pl.25.
(d) gelatin silver print, 457 x 743mm, whole-length to right, seated with legs crossed, wearing helmet, surrounded by his men; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5154 [5199 and 5192, copies]. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (45); repr. Stanley 1909, p.330; Hird 1935, p.184; and McLynn 1989, between pp.256–7.
(e) 103 x 141mm, seated centrally, holding helmet on lap, with the officers of HMS Industry; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5197.
Christie’s sale catalogue makes reference to a further print from this session (45), showing ‘Stanley and his men in Botanic Gardens’, Cape Town. This remains untraced.
Another photograph probably from this session, three-quarter-length to left, standing, wearing same uniform as above, holding helmet in right hand, surrounded by his men; repr. as full-page engr. ILN, 8 Dec. 1877, frontispiece (captioned ‘Stanley and some of his native followers’).

Photographs by James Edward Bruton (Brunton), Cape Town, three known poses:
(a) head-and-shoulders, three-quarter profile to right, right hand tucked in coat and handkerchief in left breast pocket; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov. 29: National Archives (COPY 1/39); Getty Images, 2642913. Repr. as engr. ILN, 6 Feb. 1878, p.20 (head-and-shoulders vignette, oval format).
(b) 950 x 143mm, seated, surrounded by African followers; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov. 29: National Archive (COPY 1/39); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5198.
(c) seated, left arm on sofa and hand to face; reg. for copyright 1877 Nov. 29: National Archive (COPY 1/39); Getty Images, 3375824.

c.1877
Photographs by Braun & Co. (Adolphe Braun), Paris, three known poses:
(a) cabinet card, 115 x 83mm in oval mount, slightly turned to left, facing forwards, wearing dark suit; prints colls RGS, London, 052152 (O); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and Album 5154.
(b) carte-de-visite, 90 x 60mm, dressed as in (a), shoulders to right, slightly profile to right; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(c) cabinet card, 160 x 110mm, three-quarter-length, seated with legs crossed to front, beside unidentified man; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5135.

1878
Photographs by Cliché Brion, Marseille, two known poses:
(a) cabinet card, 107 x 78mm in oval mount, with printed date 11 Jan. 1878, head-and-shoulders, slightly profile to left, eyes to left, wearing large dark tie; RGS, London, PR/052153 (N). Repr. (cropped version) McLynn 1989, between pp.128–9; and Batchelor 1990, frontispiece.
(b) dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders, turned to left, facing forwards; Getty Images, 89859627. Repr. as engr. Aimot 1951, title page (reversed).

publ. 1880
Woodburytype, 120 x 95mm oval, by Lock & Whitfield, half-length, almost profile to left, wearing dark tie; prints colls NPG x133405 (uncropped), NPG Ax17606 (oval), NPG x5576 and NPG x26560; and Wellcome L., London, 13611i. Repr. Cooper 1876–83, ser.4, 1880, no.22; and Bonhams, 29 Mar. 2011 (395, i).

1882
Photographs by Reutlinger, four known poses:
(a) 290 x 230mm, head-and-shoulders, slightly profile to left, wearing light coat and stiff white collar, moustache; RGS, London, PR/0206806 (C).
(b) dressed as in (a), fully profile to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(c) carte-de-visite, 145 x 94mm, dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders, shoulders slightly to right, head three-quarters to left; prints colls Wellcome L., London, WF/M/I/PR/E52; and Getty Images, 89858249.
(d) albumen cabinet card, 145 x 102mm, dressed as in (a), half-length, facing forwards; prints colls NPG x38840; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. as engr. Buel 1890, p.200; and George 1895, frontispiece (and as embossed detail on front cover).

c.1882
Photographs by unidentified photographer, two known poses:
(a) 103 x 153mm, whole-length, seated in deckchair, legs crossed to right, wearing hat, with African companion Dualla on Congo Expedition; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5200. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (44 [Album 1]).
(b) 103 x 153mm, dressed as in (a), seated on a rock with Dualla to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5200.

1884
Photograph, 101 x 160mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length to right, profile to right looking over shoulder, seated on crate, legs crossed, with Francis de Winton and others, June 1884; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 6978 (where described as ‘Stanley’s departure from Vivi’).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, Hotel Meurice, Paris, two known poses:
(a) 152 x 112mm, half-length to left, profile to right, standing with three women in the foreground (friend May Sheldon bottom right); RGS, London, PR/052153 (A). Repr. Hall 1974, p.242 (captioned ‘With admirers after the great journey across Africa…’); McLynn 1989, facing p.257; Batchelor 1990, p.13; and Jeal 2007, pl.24.
(b) 160 x 115mm, three-quarter-length, standing in the centre, with four women in the foreground (May Sheldon, bottom centre); RGS, London, PR/052153 (B).

c.1884
Photograph, 155 x 112mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length to left, profile to left, seated with legs crossed, left arm resting on lap and right arm resting on a volume on table to front; Wellcome L., London, WF/M/I/PR/E52 (with two cropped half-length versions of the image). This photograph was used as part of a composite image, 322 x 235mm, Stanley centre with five others (including A.B. Swinburne); neg. RGS, London, 0196/021357 [Image S0005863] (where titled ‘Congo Officers in Council’).

1885
Photograph, 130 x 105mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length to front, seated, hat resting on knee, with four others (incl. Sir William Mackinnon, 1st Bt) in the garden at Balinakill; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5135.

Photograph, 170 x 115mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length to right, seated in garden, at centre with women posed around him; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5135.

Photographs by John Thomson, London, eight known poses:
(a) 274 x 170mm, almost whole-length, seated in chair, right hand hidden, left hand resting spread out on leg, wearing white perforated hat and military coat; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/189) and 1889 Jan. 11: National Archives (COPY 1/395/51).
Cropped, cabinet card version of (a), 140 x 102mm; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152 (R) [Image S0014460]; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5243.
(b) 280 x 172, three-quarter-length, standing, left hand hanging down and holding perforated hat, wearing light jacket and checked trousers, right-hand thumb tucked into belt; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/187) and 1889 Jan. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/395/60). Repr. Stanley 1885, vol.2, frontispiece (oval format); Merry England, vol.5, 1885, p.345 (oval format); and Hird 1935, p.196.
Head-and-shoulders vignette of (b), 150 x 97mm; prints colls RGS, London, PR/026805; and Wellcome L., London, WF/M/I/PR/E52 (164 x 115mm). Exh. Paris 1889.
(c) 272 x170mm, three-quarter-length, seated, right hand on right leg, left hand on left leg, wearing woollen jacket with straps on shoulders; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/183) and 1889 Jan. 11: National Archives (COPY 1/395/52).
Cropped version of (c); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5155. Repr. Review of Reviews 1890, p.281.
(d) 272 x 170mm, three-quarter-length, standing, left hand except thumb in left pocket, right hand resting on umbrella, wearing perforated hat; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/188) and 1889 Jan. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/395/61)(cropped)
Albumen cabinet card, version of (d), 140 x 94mm; NPG, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC, S/NPG.78.109.
(e) 275 x 170mm, three-quarter-length, standing, right hand resting on umbrella, left hand in pocket, wearing perforated hat, with white curtain sunshade; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/190). Repr. as engr. Wauters 1890, frontispiece (head-and-shoulders vignette).
(f) 275 x 170mm, three-quarter-length, standing, left hand resting on left side, right hand resting on table; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/186); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 (oval format).
(g) 275 x 170mm, three-quarter-length, standing with left hand in coat pocket, right hand resting on table, portion of hat visible on table; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/185) and 1889 Jan. 11: National Archives (COPY 1/395/50).
(h) 272 x 170mm, three-quarter-length, standing by table with hat on table, left hand in jacket pocket, right hand tucked into jacket; reg. for copyright 1885 Mar. 21: National Archives (COPY 1/371/184) and 1889 Jan. 11: National Archives (Copy 1/395/49). Repr. Stanley 1909, p.336; La Revue Colonial Belge, 1951, p.391.
Cropped version of (h), albumen print, NPG x9043; different crop, cabinet card, colls RGS, London, 052152 (M) (147 x 102mm); Wellcome L., London, WF/M/I/PR/E52 (105 x 80mm); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5154, 5302 and 7021.

c.1885
Photographs by Maull & Co., two known poses:
(a) 300 x 190mm, bust-length, turned to right, slightly profile to right, wearing upturned collar and spotted cravat; prints colls King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153; and RGS, London, PR/0206806 [Image S0011861] (inscr. to Henry Wellcome ‘This my dear Wellcome / from yours very faithfully / Henry M. Stanley, December/ 14th 1885’).
(b) dressed as in (a), half-length, seated to left, face three-quarters to left, hands clasped on lap; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Cabinet card, 147 x 104mm, by Elliott & Fry, half-length, facing forwards, eyes to front, wearing frogged jacket and perforated hat with flap; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152 (Q) [Image S0013720]; Wellcome L., London, WF/M/I/PR/E52 (240 x 190mm, modern print); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5237. Repr. Stanley 1909, p.348; Hird 1935, p.182; Wassermann 1932, frontispiece; La Revue Colonial Belge 1952, p.534 (head only crop); Farwell 1957, between pp.48–9; Observer Magazine, 6 Oct. 1974, front cover; Hall 1974, p.279; Bierman 1991, p.247; and McLynn 1991, facing p.116.
Print by Bassano after Elliot & Fry; NPG x176235.

Photographs by Elliot & Fry, four known poses:
(a) 164 x 120mm, half-length, shoulders to left, profile to left, wearing dark cravat with horseshoe pin; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152 (A and Z) (head-and-shoulders vignette); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) carte-de-visite, 145 x 110mm, head-and-shoulders vignette, shoulders to left, slightly profile to left, wearing dark cravat and horseshoe pin; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (128); repr. as engr. Montefiore 1890, frontispiece (head-and-shoulders vignette); and Hird 1935, p.106 (uncropped version).
(c) half-length to left, facing forwards, seated on chair, left arm resting on arm of chair and right hand across thigh; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(d) half-length to left, profile to left, seated on chair, with left hand resting on thigh and right hand resting on ledge before him; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Albumen cabinet card, 142 x 102mm, by Henry Herschel Hay Cameron, half-length, profile to right, wearing dark suit and white spotted tie; publ. by London Stereoscopic Co.; prints colls NPG x31032; RGS, London, PR/052152 (T); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

1885/1886
Photographs by unidentified photographer, four known poses:
(a) 110 x 150mm, inscr. ‘at Staffa’, whole-length to front, with Dorothy Stanley;
(b) 210 x 270mm, half-length, hands in pockets, wearing hat, on deck of ship to right of a group of seven women;
(c) 220 x 27mm, facing front, on board Jumna, to bottom left of large group;
(d) 320 x 245mm, half-length to right, facing front, with William Hoffman and four others at Homburg;
all in the album ‘Souvenirs of Yachting’; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 7010.

1886
Photograph, 176 x 122m, by Edmund John Passingham, Platino Grapho, Bradford, 17 Sept. 1886, head-and-shoulders vignette, slightly profile to left, wearing white cravat with small dark spots and a pin; prints colls NPG Ax68634; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153, Album 5155, 5232, 6987; and RGS, London, PR/052152.

c.1886
Photograph, 120 x 90mm, by unidentified photographer, half-length in oval, shoulders to left, almost profile to left; wearing same suit as in item above, but with slightly longer hair and a different tie; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and Album 5155.

Photographs by Vincent Hatch, two known poses:
(a) 110 x 80mm, head-and-shoulders in oval, face three-quarter-profile to left, eyes looking to his right; reg. for copyright 1886 Nov. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/378/143).
(b) 90 x 55mm, head-and-shoulders turned slightly to left, facing front; reg. for copyright 1886 Nov. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/378/144).

1887
Photographs by unidentified photographer, Hotel Meurice, Paris, Jan. 1887, three known poses:
(a) 153 x 111mm, seated to left, almost profile to right, hand on the arm of A.B. Swinburne to his left; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5155.
(b) three-quarter-length to right, standing with knee resting on seat of chair, to the left of A.B. Swinburne; repr. Jeal 2007, pl.26; and Jeal 2011, between pp.318–19.
(c) 158 x 110mm, whole-length to left, seated with legs crossed and hands clasped at waist, on the terrace but photographed from inside the room; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5238.
Cropped version of (c); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

1889
Photographs by unidentified photographer, Zanzibar, Dec. 1889, three known poses:
(a) whole-length slightly to right, seated with legs crossed, holding white hat upon lap, with expedition officers; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. Jeal 2007, pl.31.
(b) whole-length to front, seated, hat perched on knees and holding walking stick, with expedition officers and followers; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. as engr. Pall Mall Budget, 20 Feb. 1890, p.241.
(c) whole-length to right, seated with legs crossed, right hand holding hat on lap and left hand on end of walking stick, potted palm to left-hand side; sketch by George Hutchinson after (c) repr. as full-page engr. Pall Mall Budget, 27 Feb. 1890, frontispiece.

Photographs by unidentified photographer, Zanzibar, Dec. 1889, two known poses:
(a) whole-length in horizontal oval, seated centrally, meeting Zanzibari dignitaries, Union Jack flags draped behind; Getty Images, 89860282.
(b) dress and setting as in (a), whole-length, standing; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, Zanzibar, Dec. 1889, three-quarter-length, standing, wearing white hat, on right a group of Europeans and Africans; Getty Images, 2629072.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length, slightly profile to left, wearing hat, standing with his porters at the British Agency, Zanzibar, Dec. 1889; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. as engr. (where profile to right) Graphic, p.133 (captioned ‘Mr H. M. Stanley’s Return to Civilisation’).

1890
Photographs by I. Heyman, Cairo, Feb. 1890, before Stanley’s return to England, four known poses:
(a) cabinet card, 146 x 100mm, head-and-shoulders vignette, shoulders slightly to right, almost profile to right, wearing spotted tie; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052152 (W); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 6986 and 7017.
Ink drawing, 138 x 105mm, by Jacques Reich after (a); NPG, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC, S/NPG.72.76
Woodcut possibly based on (a), on Stanley’s general election handbill; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (195).
(b) 148 x 100mm, head-and-shoulders vignette, shoulders to front, less profile to right, eyes directed forwards; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153, 6980 and 7022. Repr. Stead 1891, p.96; also repr. as engr. Bookman, vol.19, 1904, p.37.
(c) pose as in (b), taken from a slightly different angle; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. in postcard of exhibition at Victoria G., 1890; also repr. as engr. Ashore and Afloat, Aug. 1890, p.75 and July 1904, p.107.
(d) 235 x 305mm, dressed as in (a) with walking stick and bowler hat, whole-length, seated, in centre surrounded by four officers of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition; reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 25: National Archives (COPY 1/399/393); prints colls King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and 5205; and RGS, London, PR/026873 [Image S0005736] (350 x 257mm). Repr. Stanley 1909, p.390; Hall 1974, p.332; and Bierman 1991, p.334; also repr. as engr. Stanley 1890, frontispiece; Farwell 1957, facing p.225; and Batchelor 1990, p.170.

Photographs by John Fergus, Cannes, Apr. 1890, wearing stiff collar and white tie, ten known poses:
(a) 166 x 103mm and 165 x 106mm, head-and-shoulders, profile to left; reg. for copyright 1890 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/400/197 and 198) (copy nos 1 and 2). Repr. in souvenir booklet of the ‘American Testimonial Banquet’ to Stanley, 30 May 1890 (Wellcome L., London, RAMC/497, box 100); Geographical Journal, 1904, p.104; Weinthal 1923, vol.1, p.142; and La Revue Colonial Belge 1954, p.317.
Cabinet card, 138 x 99mm; RGS, London, 052152 (V).
(b) cabinet card, 165 x 100mm, half-length to right, three-quarter profile to right, seated in chair; reg. for copyright 1890 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/400/199) (copy no.3); prints colls King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153; and RGS, London, PR/052152 (X) [Image S0014461] (136 x 95mm). Repr. Bonhams, 29 Mar. 2011 (395, ii [incorrectly listed as by H.R. Barraud]); also repr. as engr. Strand, vol.1, 1891, p.284.
(c) 160 x 107mm, half-length to right, profile to right, seated; reg. for copyright 1890 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/400/200) (copy no.4).
(d) 165 x 107mm, half-length to right, slightly more profile to right, seated; reg. for copyright 1890 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/400/201) (copy no.5); prints colls NPG Ax5497 (repr. MWD, vol.3, 1890, p.85); and Wellcome L., London, 13614i (photogravure) and WF/M/I/PR/E52 (photograph). Repr. Farwell 1957, p.241.
(e) 145 x 98mm, half-length, full-face, looking to front, seated with legs crossed to right; reg. for copyright 1890 May 9: National Archives (COPY 1/400/251).
Cabinet card, Wellcome L., London, 13610i.
(f) 400 x 326mm, whole-length to left, standing to the right of William Mackinnon, 1st Bt, wearing white suit; reg. for copyright 1890 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/400/205).
(g) 366 x 292mm, whole-length, almost profile to left, standing beside Mackinnon (who has hand resting inside jacket), wearing white suit; reg. for copyright 1890 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/400/206).
(h) 555 x 430mm, whole-length, almost profile to left, standing beside Mackinnon (who holds document in left hand), wearing white suit; reg. for copyright 1890 May 9: National Archives (COPY 1/400/249).
(i) 600 x 500mm, whole-length, seated to the right of Mackinnon, wearing white suit; reg. for copyright 1890 May 9: National Archives (COPY 1/400/250).
(j) 100 x 147mm, whole-length to left, seated with legs crossed, beside Mackinnon and Francis de Winton; reg. for copyright 1890 May 23: National Archives (COPY 1/400/340). Repr. Stanley 1890, vol.2, frontispiece (deluxe edition of 250 copies).

Photograph, 120 x 80mm, by unidentified photographer, possibly from same session as above, but with ends of collar folded down, head-and-shoulders, shoulders to front, slightly profile to right; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photograph, 233 x 280mm, by Alexander James Grossmann, whole-length, facing front, in foreground amongst a large group of people, arriving at Dover on Belgian boat, Apr. 1890; reg. for copyright 1890 May 2: National Archives (COPY 1/400/221).

Photograph, 61mm diam. (Kodak print), by unidentified photographer, partly obscured, almost profile to right, standing on quay side on return from Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, Apr. 1890; RGS, London, PR/026805 (B).


Photographs by Walery [Stanislas Julian, Count Ostrorog], 6 May 1890, two known poses:
(a) carbon print, 248 x 181mm, three-quarter-length, slightly profile to right, hands in pockets, wearing dark checked suit and white spotted tie, with watch chain; prints NPG Ax9169 and NPG x26562 (repr. as photogravure, 265 x 170mm, McLynn 1991, between pp.116–17). Repr. Walery 1888–96, vol.2, issue 24, June 1890; and Stanley & Neame 1961, facing p.96; also repr. as engr. Pall Mall Budget, 10 July 1890, frontispiece; ILN, 12 July 1890, p.44 (oval format).
Cropped version, 150 x 100mm, half-length, cropped just below watch chain; prints colls NPG Ax38329; RGS, London, 052152 (U); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 6967 (cabinet cards).
Vignetted version one of five images in a tabernacle frame, a wedding gift in 1890; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (85).
(b) 291 x 170mm, dressed as in (a), three-quarter-length, profile to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5314.
Cropped version, half-length, cropped just below watch chain; priv. coll. (cabinet card); and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7027 (160 x 107mm, photogravure, oval). Repr. Stanley 1890, vol.2, frontispiece.

Carbon print, 291 x 178mm, by Walery [Stanislas Julian, Count Ostrorog], whole-length to front, slightly profile to right, standing, left hand resting on table and right hand holding scroll, wearing sash and white bowtie, Order of the Bath pinned to chest, 6 May 1890; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5301 and 7032.
Cropped version, 249 x 182mm, three-quarter-length; publ. by Sampson Low & Co.; repr. Stanley 1890, vol.1, frontispiece (deluxe edition of 250 copies); also repr. as engr. after Walery but wearing frogged tunic (print Wellcome L., London, 8946i).
Coloured lecture slide after cropped version; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 6995.
Heliogravure, 109 x 844mm, by Frederick John Jenkins after Walery, head-and-shoulders (pose cropped), facing front, wearing ceremonial dress; NPG x26561. Repr. Stanley 1895, vol.2, frontispiece.

Photograph, 48 x 45mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length, standing with group in front of doorway, wearing light-coloured suit, on visit to Clydebank, 13 June 1890; David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, Scotland (NT Scotland), 281.

Photograph, 209 x 275mm, by unidentified photographer, at Haddo House, Aberdeenshire, 16 June 1890; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 6997.

Photographs by Eveleen Myers (née Tennant), Melchett Court, Aug. 1890, three known poses:
(a) platinum print, 193 x 241mm, whole-length slightly to left, seated in garden beside wife Dorothy, hat perched upon walking stick; prints colls NPG Ax68486; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5119 (re-photograph from 1890). Exh. Edwardian Women Photographers, NPG, London, 1994.
(b) platinum print, 201 x 155mm, whole-length, seated on bench with wife Dorothy, legs crossed to right, wearing hat, servant Sali standing to right; prints NPG Ax68770 and NPG x68770 (201 x 155mm). Exh. Edwardian Women Photographers, NPG, London, 1994.
(c) 293 x 248mm, dressed as in (a), three-quarter-length, slightly profile to left, eyes looking upwards, seated indoors beside wife Dorothy, both holding books; prints colls King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5303; and RGS, London, 052152 (Y) (cropped version, 153 x 110mm).

Photographs by unidentified photographer, at Lady Emily Peel’s, Geneva, c. Aug. 1890, two known poses:
(a) whole-length to front, seated with legs crossed, wearing cap and holding cane in left hand, cigar in right, patio setting; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. Jeal 2007, pl.30.
(b) dressed as in (a), without cane and hat; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photographs by unidentified photographer, Maloja Hotel, Engadine, Switzerland, Sept. 1890, two known poses:
(a) whole-length to right, looking upwards, seated in group including wife Dorothy, Richard Francis Burton, his wife Isabel and Arthur Jephson, with Sali, also present; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) whole-length to left, seated beside Richard Francis Burton (who wears a fez); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photograph, 115 x 150mm, by unidentified photographer, seated in deck chair in front row of group including Emin Pasha (post 1890); in album ‘Souvenirs of Yachting’, King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 7010.

Photographs by Joseph Bell, seven known poses:
(a) 172 x 232mm, half-length, facing front, seated beside Bell (who is sketching); reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 27: National Archives (COPY 1/399/394).
(b) 165 x 225mm, half-length, facing front, seated beside Bell; reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 27: National Archives (COPY 1/399/395) (copy no.2).
(c) 170 x 230mm, half-length to right, seated, writing his book; reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 27: National Archives (COPY 1/399/396) (copy no.1).
(d) 170 x 230mm, half-length, writing his book; reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 27: National Archives (COPY 1/399/397) (copy no.2).
(e) 170 x 230mm, half-length, writing his book; reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 27: National Archives (COPY 1/399/398) (copy no.3).
(f) 170 x 230mm, whole-length, seated with legs crossed, with E. Marston in Stanley’s reception saloon; reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 27 (COPY 1/399/399).
(g) 170 x 183mm, whole-length to front, seated, having his likeness painted, a female painter standing to right; reg. for copyright 1890 Mar. 27 (COPY 1/399/400).

Platinum print, 200 x 154mm, by Eveleen Myers (née Tennant), three-quarter-length to front, slightly profile to right, standing, holding hat in left hand, beside seated wife Dorothy; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photographs by Frederick Ralph, two known poses:
(a) 152 x 103mm, three-quarter-length, seated with hand to chin, wearing dark coat and checked trousers; reg. for copyright 1890 May 9: National Archives (COPY 1/400/247). Repr. Horne 2001, between pp.98–99.
(b) 152 x 102mm, three-quarter-length, profile to right, seated, wearing dark coat and checked trousers, with hand in coat; reg. for copyright 1890 May 9: National Archives (COPY 1/400/246); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photograph, 205 x 155mm, by Eveleen Myers (née Tennant), three-quarter-length to front, head lifted, eyes to right, standing in garden, wearing frogged jacket; prints colls NPG Ax68518; Wellcome L., London, V 27212; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5274 (Kodak print c.1909, 167 x 120mm). Exh. Edwardian Women Photographers, NPG, London, 1994; repr. Stanley 1909, p.409; and Bierman 1991, p.349 (oval format).

c.1890
Platinum print by Evelyn Myers; see NPG P145.

Photograph by F.W.H. Myers, half-length, head lifted slightly, eyes to right, wearing frogged jacket; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5274 (Kodak print c.1901 [167 x 120mm]). Repr. Stanley 1909, frontispiece; Weinthal 1923, vol.1, p.454; also repr. as photogravure Graphic, 21 Nov. 1895, p.865; and as engr. by A. Matthey, Laufer 1946, frontispiece.
Image based on photograph repr. Belgian Congo stamp, issued 1928; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (59).

Photographs by unidentified photographer, two known poses:
(a) half-length to right, wearing academic gown and cap, upon receiving honorary degree from Edinburgh (or Oxford) University; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (193).
(b) dressed as in (a), shoulders to left, slightly profile to left; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and 5166.

Photographs (Kodak prints) by unidentified photographer, three known poses:
(a) 87mm diam., whole-length, profile to right, with cap and walking cane, standing with his wife Dorothy; RGS, London, PR/052154. Repr. Tames 1973, p.40 (cropped version).
(b) 87mm diam., facing forwards, with cap and walking cane, seated with his wife Dorothy; RGS, London, PR/052154 (A).
(c) 87mm diam., standing next to wife Dorothy (who is blanked out); RGS, London, PR/052154 (A).

1891
Photographs by unidentified photographer, 25 Feb. 1891, two known poses:
(a) 90mm diam., three-quarter-length, profile to left, wearing coat and bowler hat, passing the old residence of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield, USA; RGS, London, PR/052547.
(b) 90mm diam., dressed and posed as in (a), facing front; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5332.

Albumen cabinet cards, 146 x 102mm, by James Russell & Sons, Feb. 1891, two known poses:
(a) head-and-shoulders, almost profile to left, with full moustache and white hair; NPG x13207.
(b) profile to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 (where inscr. by contemporary hand on mount ‘San Francisco’).

Photographs by Isaiah West Taber, Monterey, CA, 19 Mar. 1891, four known poses:
(a) albumen panel card, 194 x 240mm, whole-length, standing next to wife Dorothy, with five others, at the end of a Pullman car, with three stewards in background; NPG Ax68648. Repr. Hird 1935, p.292; Bierman 1991, p.342; and McLynn 1991, between pp.116–17.
(b) albumen panel card, 195 x 241mm, whole-length to right, left leg resting on footstool, standing in front of the Pullman car with same group; prints colls NPG Ax68649; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5244 and 5290.
(c) albumen panel card, 195 x 243mm, head only, full face, beside wife Dorothy, both leaning through the window of the Pullman car with Stanley’s name on the side; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5245.
(d) albumen panel card, 194 x 242mm, head only, slightly profile to right, beside wife Dorothy in the window of the Pullman car; prints colls NPG Ax68650; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5246 and 5247.
Close-up of the heads in (d), 144 x 213mm; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5248.

Photographs (Kodak prints) by Isaiah West Taber, 28 Mar. 1891, six known poses:
(a) 90mm diam., partly obscured, standing, wearing bowler hat, with his wife Dorothy ‘at the Station in Mauhall, Texas, assisting Major Pond to get a snap shot of an old wood Sawyer hanging around the station’; prints colls RGS, London, PR/052548; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5332.
(b) 90mm diam., looking to left, standing with his wife Dorothy beside train carriage; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5332 (two prints). Ref. Christie’s, 26–7 Sept. 2007 (65).
(c) four further prints, each 90mm diam., dressed as above, four different poses; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5332.

Photograph, 90mm diam. (Kodak print), by unidentified photographer, whole-length to left, standing wearing cap and facing camera, with wife Dorothy and two unidentified women, Mar. or Apr. 1891; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5332 (where captioned ‘Recreating in Arizona while train stops – 20 minutes for dinner’).

Photograph, 208 x 160mm, by Eveleen Myers (née Tennant), half-length, head lifted, eyes to right, wearing frogged jacket, standing in interior with wife Dorothy, Gertrude Tennant and F.W.H. Myers at Wimpole Hall, Cambs.; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7037.
Cropped version; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photographs by Eveleen Myers (née Tennant), two known poses:
(a) 244 x 289mm, bust, facing forwards, left arm held across chest, wearing dark jacket, to the right of William Mackinnon, 1st Bt; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5320. Repr. Jeal 2007, pl.34; and Jeal 2011, between pp.318–19.
(b) 293 x 248mm, dressed as in (a), profile to right, holding chin with left hand; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and 5305.

1892
Photographs by unidentified photographer, two known poses:
(a) whole-length to left, seated on garden stool, holding walking stick and hat resting on his knee, in the grounds at Balinakill; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) dressed as in (a) but wearing hat, whole-length to front, standing, right arm resting upon tree trunk; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

1893
Cabinet card, 155 x 104mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length to right, holding a scroll, wearing hat, walking outdoors at Tervoe, Sept. 1893; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5164 and Album 5153.

Photograph, 107 x 155mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length, standing to right of group incl. (among others) his wife Dorothy, planting a tree at Tervoe; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153, 7044 and 7049.

Photographs by Thomas Charles Turner, four known poses:
(a) 125 x 105mm, three-quarter-length, facing front, seated at desk with legs crossed to left, left elbow resting on chair arm, wearing striped trousers and white cravat; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) cabinet card, 146 x 103mm, dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders, shoulders to front, slightly profile to left, looking upwards slightly; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5276, 5302 and Album 5153. Ref. Christie’s 24 Sept. 2002 (170); repr. as engr., with shoulders slightly to left (unknown source).
(c) cabinet card, 146 x 103mm, dressed as in (a), half-length, shoulders turned to right, facing forwards: print King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5275 (3 cabinet cards), 3235 and Album 5153).
Head-and-shoulders vignette version of (c); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5154.
(d) half-length, shoulders to front, profile to right, looking upwards; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

c.1893
Photograph, 275 x 213mm, by James Lambert, whole-length, seated on garden chair beside wife Dorothy, with hat and umbrella; reg. for copyright 1893 Dec. 7: National Archives (COPY 1/414/788).

Photographs by Bassano, two known poses:
(a) 151 x 104mm, half-length, facing forwards, slightly profile to right, wearing dark suit and white tie; prints colls NPG x85792; and King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5311 (144 x 104mm). Repr. ILN, 14 May 1904, p.715 (oval format).
(b) 143 x 95mm, dressed as in (a), shoulders to front, profile to left; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5316.

Photographs by Fradelle & Young, two known poses:
(a) 234 x 190mm, three-quarter-length to right, seated with legs crossed, holding glasses on lap, in interior; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5239.
(b) 230 x 187mm, dressed as in (a), three-quarter-length to left, profile to left, standing, holding glasses in hand before him; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5240.

c.1894
Photographs by Thomas Kirk Biddle, laying the memorial stone of Dartford Cottage Hospital, two known poses:
(a) 240 x 180mm, whole-length to right, seated with legs crossed, on central platform; reg. for copyright 1894 Apr. 26: National Archives (COPY 1/416/181).
(b) 375 x 126mm, whole-length to right, seated with legs uncrossed, on central platform; reg. for copyright 1894 Apr. 26: National Archives (COPY 1/416//180).

1895
Photograph, 141 x 98mm, by Napoleon Sarony, New York, head-and-shoulders, slightly turned to right, facing forwards, with white, waved hair, wearing dark tie with white diamond pattern; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5277 (two cabinet cards) and 5274 (Kodak print, c.1909, two copies). Repr. Stanley 1909, p.466; and La Revue Colonial Belge 1954, p.319.

1896
Photographs by Guigonni & Rossi, Milan, four known poses:
(a) 217 x 159mm, three-quarter-length vignette, shoulders slightly to right, almost profile to right, standing, wearing dark suit with coat over shoulders; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153 and 5241.
Head-and-shoulders vignette from (a); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5306. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (170).
(b) 146 x 97mm, dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders vignette, profile to left; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5307, 5308, 5242 and 7018.
(c) carte-de-visite, signed and dated, half-length vignette to front, profile to left, with arms crossed; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (192 and 200).
(d) 218 x 159mm, half-length vignette to front, profile to right, with arms crossed; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5313.

1897
Photographs by Elliot & Fry, three known poses:
(a) head-and-shoulders to front, profile to left, wearing dark suit with wide lapels, full white moustache; repr. Graphic, 1904, p.658.
(b) 152 x 107mm, head-and-shoulders, shoulders to left, facing front, against two-tone background; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5310.
(c) half-length to right, facing front, seated, right arm resting on the arm of the chair; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photograph, 179mm diam. (Kodak print), by unidentified photographer (probably Dorothy Stanley), half-length to front, wearing top hat, seated centrally in group incl. May Sheldon and Colonel Clarence A. Collier in the Grand Stand at Richmond Terrace on Queen Victoria’s Jubilee Day, 22 June 1897; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5266.
Another print of this image – with ten other snapshots including Stanley, and documenting time spent on Table Mountain and RMS Norman in 1897 – is in the King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Album 5135.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, Newton, Wales, July 1897, cropped to show Stanley only, whole-length to front, seated wearing tweed cap; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5135.

Platinum print in card window mount, 206 x 156mm, by (John) Benjamin Stone, whole-length, left hand to hip, right hand holding top hat, Members’ Entrance to Terrace, Houses of Parliament; prints colls NPG x35100; and Birmingham Central L.

Photographs by James Russell & Sons, five known poses:
(a) 144 x 103mm, half-length, profile to left, wearing dark suit and moustache; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5160.
Head-and-shoulders vignette version of (a); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Repr. Wilson 1902, p.127.
(b) dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders in oval, less profile to left; ref. NPG SB (Stanley).
(c) 140 x 100mm, dressed as in (a), half-length to right, profile to right; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5300.
Head-and-shoulders version of c); repr. Hird 1935, frontispiece; La Revue Colonial Belge 1955, p.219; and McLynn 1991, between pp.116–17.
(d) 142 x 104mm, half-length to left, profile to left, seated in chair, hands on lap; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5161 and Album 5153.
(e) 145 x 104mm, half-length to left, torso turned to front, seated with legs crossed, left arm resting over chairback and right hand on lap; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5162 and Album 5153.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, possibly from same session as item above, half-length to front, seated, left hand resting on chairback, right hand on lap, wearing dark suit, moustache; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (170).

Photograph, 79 x 79mm framed in passe-partout, by unidentified photographer, at Cadoxton, South Wales, three-quarter-length to right, facing front, hands in pockets, standing in garden with path behind and ivy-covered wall to left; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5156 and Album 5135.

Photograph, 110 x 75mm, by unidentified photographer, Vienna, three-quarter-length, facing front, standing behind wife Dorothy and ‘Miss Holden’ in studio; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5135.

c.1898
Photograph, 85mm diam., by unidentified photographer (probably Dorothy Stanley), three-quarter-length to right, standing, wearing cap, mouth slightly open, holding adopted son Denzil in his arms; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7030.

late 1890s
Photograph, 210 x 284mm, by unidentified photographer, whole-length to front, seated with hat resting on knee, third from left in group photograph for unknown occasion (each man wearing circular disk pinned to chest with piece of ribbon); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5167.

Photograph, 92 x 75mm, by unidentified photographer, standing outdoors (probably at Furze Hill) with unidentified man: print King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7036.

1901
Photographs by Dickinson Brothers, 114 New Bond Street, two known poses:
(a) cabinet card, 160 x 105mm, whole-length vignette to right, slightly profile to right, seated with legs crossed, wearing top hat; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7020.
Carte-de-visite version of (a); King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153. Ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2002 (191).
(b) dressed as in (a), head-and-shoulders slightly to right, facing forwards; repr. Review of Reviews 1904, p.625.

Photographs by Lombardi & Co., two known poses:
(a) 139 x 100mm, three-quarter-length to left, seated at desk, wearing long dark coat, holding quill; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5288. Repr. Jeal 2007, pl.27.
(b) dressed as in (a), three-quarter-length to left, facing front, seated at desk, with both hands resting in front of him; repr. Pond 1901, between pp.262–3; Scottish Geographical Magazine, vol.20, 1904, p.281; and Hoffman 1938, frontispiece.

c.1901
Photograph, 144 x 100mm, by Maull & Fox, half-length, shoulders to left, slightly profile to left with eyes directed downwards, seated, wearing dark suit and spotted cravat; prints King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5277 (three prints), 5282 and 5317.

1902
Photograph, 143 x 97mm, by Maull & Fox, whole-length to front, seated, wearing dark suit, with Denzil; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 7029 and 7024. Repr. Jeal 2007, pl.36.

c.1902
Photograph, 85mm diam., by unidentified photographer (probably Dorothy Stanley), three-quarter-length to front, standing, wearing checked suit, with Denzil; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5135.


Undated photographs

Photograph by unidentified photographer, three-quarter-length to front, looking to front, standing in garden, wearing bowler hat, holding umbrella in front of him with both hands; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5155.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders, half-profile to left, wearing peaked helmet and dress uniform with buttoned tunic and high collar; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5155 (photogravure).

Photograph, 120 x 90mm, by unidentified photographer, head only, asleep; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5316.

Amongst the substantial amount of material from the Stanley family’s collection – auctioned at Christie’s on 24 September 2004 – were many cartes-de-visite and other photographs of the sitter. In addition to items individually listed above, the sale catalogue makes reference to a number of images that are now dispersed and apparently unpublished (detailed below). Because they remain untraced, it is not possible to ascertain whether these references relate to photographs already identified above, or to unseen images.

Cut-out photograph, mounted on blue card, 200 x 120mm, inscr. by wife Dorothy on verso ‘Photo of Henry M Stanley taken just before he left New York City for his trip to Asia Minor’, half-length; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (part of lot 7).

Photographs, ‘Stanley when mining at Black Hawk City’ (early 1860s); ‘Livingstone Expedition: front face – no helmet’ and others; ‘Stanley and his Zanzibari’ (1890 and 1895); ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (part of lot 9).

Photographs, posing with ?Farquhar and an Arab (Zanzibar, 1871); Stanley and his men, titled ‘After the descent of the Congo’ (1877); ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (part of lot 44) [Album 1].

Album including six photographs of Stanley (1872–9); ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (part of lot 49).

Photograph relating to Stanley’s wedding and a humorous gift from H.S. Wellcome – photographs of sketch models featuring Stanley and Dorothy; ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (part of lot 114).

Lithographic stone, 408 x 307mm, Stanley seated in an armchair under palm leaves (c.1890); ref. Christie’s, 24 Sept. 2004 (part of lot 141).

Elizabeth Heath