Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue
James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), Painter and etcher
His appearance was provocative and there are many contemporary descriptions. William Merritt Chase on the contradictory aspects to Whistler:
One was Whistler in public the fop, the cynic, the brilliant, flippant, vain and careless idler; the other was Whistler of the studio the earnest, tireless, somber worker, a very slave to his art, a bitter foe to all pretense and sham, an embodiment of simplicity almost to the point of diffidence, an incarnation of earnestness and sincerity of purpose. 
Arthur Symons on Whistlers appearance in later life:
I never saw any one so feverishly alive as this little, old man, with his bright, withered cheeks, over which the skin was drawn tightly, his darting eyes, under their prickly bushes of eyebrow, his fantastically-creased black and white curls of hair, his bitter and subtle mouth, and, above all, his exquisite hands, never at rest. 
The collector Arthur Jerome Eddy who sat to Whistler in 1894 commented on the inadequacy of Whistlers iconography:
Nearly every sketch, drawing or portrait of Whistler gives some phase of his many-sided personality, but not one not even those by himself gives anything like an adequate conception. He was a man most difficult to place on canvas. He could not be grasped and held long enough. He himself tried it, but with only moderate success. Others tried and failed completely that is, failed to portray him at his best; for that matter no one who has ever drawn or painted him did so when he was at his best, for those moments only came in the seclusion of his own studio, when, alone with model or sitter, he worked absolutely oblivious to everything but his art. No man is at his best when posing for photograph, sketch or portrait, and Whistler was farther from being an exception to this rule than most others. He knew too well what a portrait should be to feel the indifference which is essential to a perfectly natural pose. Consequently, while few men were better known by sight in Paris and London, scarce anyone knew him as he was the most profoundly serious, conscientious, and consistent artist of his day and generation. 
Footnotesback to top
1) Whistler exhibited at the RA 185965, 1867, 1870, 1872 and 1879 (one print). He exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery 18779 and 18814.
2) Chase 1910, p.222.
3) Symons 1906, p.124.
4) Eddy 1903, pp.2256.
Referencesback to topAdler 1915
Adler, E., Portraitures of James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat., Memorial Gallery, Rochester, NY, privately printed, 1915.
Bacher, O.H., Stories of Whistler, The Century Magazine, vol.74, no.10, May 1907, pp.10011.
Bacher, O.H., With Whistler in Venice, New York, 1908.
Bailey, K., Leighton Public and Private Lives, Apollo, February 1996, pp.226.
Beal, G.W.J., American Beauty: Paintings from the Detroit Institute of Arts, 17701920, London, 2002.
Beerbohm 1904; 1943
Beerbohm, M., The Poets Corner, London, 1904; enlarged ed., 1943.
Beerbohm, M., A Book of Caricatures, London, 1907.
Beerbohm, M., Fifty Caricatures, London, 1913.
Beerbohm, M., A Survey, London, 1921.
Beerbohm 1922; 1987
Beerbohm, M., Rossetti and His Circle, London, 1922; repr. with additions, New Haven and London, 1987.
Beerbohm, M., Maxs Nineties: Drawings 18921899, London, 1958.
Bénédite, L., LOeuvre de James McNeill Whistler, Paris, 1905.
Boughton, G.H., A Few of the Various Whistlers I have Known: Reminiscences of Whistler, The Studio, vol.30, no.129, 1903, pp.20818.
Bowdoin, W.G., James McNeill Whistler, London, 1902.
Brewster, W.S., Catalogue of an Exhibition of Whistleriana, privately printed, Chicago, 1917.
Brinton, C., Modern Artists, New York, 1908.
Burke, D.B., American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 3 vols, New York, 1980.
Butler, J.T., The American Way with Art, Connoisseur, vol.178, November 1971, pp.20813.
Callow, S., Oscar Wilde and His Circle (NPG Character Sketches series), London, 2000.
Calloway, S., Aubrey Beardsley, London, 1998.
Calloway & Orr 2011
Calloway, S., and L.F. Orr, eds, The Cult of Beauty: The Aesthetic Movement 18601900, exh. cat., Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 2011.
Cardona, E., Boldini nel suo tempo, Milan, 1951.
Cardona, E., Boldini: Parisien dItalie, Paris, 1952.
Chase, W.M., The Two Whistlers: Recollections of a Summer with the Great Etcher, Century Magazine, vol.57 (June 1910), pp.21926.
Conway, J.J., Footprints of Famous Americans in Paris, London and New York, 1912.
Crane, W., William Morris to Whistler, London, 1911.
Cross, T., Artists and Bohemians: 100 Years with the Chelsea Arts Club, London, 1992.
Cuneo, C., Whistlers Academy of Painting, The Century Magazine, New York, vol.73, no.1, November 1906, pp.1928.
Cuneo, C., Whistlers Academy of Painting: Some Parisian Recollections, Pall Mall Magazine, vol.38, no.163, November 1906, pp.53140.
Curry, D.P., James McNeill Whistler at the Freer Gallery, exh. cat., Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 1984.
Davids, R., The Artist as Portrait, exh. cat., Fine Art Society, London, 2000.
Dearden, J.S., John Ruskin: A Life in Pictures, Sheffield, 1999.
Dempsey, A., Whistler and Sickert: A Friendship and Its End, Apollo, vol.80, January 1966, pp.3037.
Denker, E., In Pursuit of the Butterfly: Portraits of James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat., National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC, 1995.
Dorment & MacDonald 1994
Dorment, R., and M.F. MacDonald, James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat., Tate Gallery, London, 1994.
Dowdeswell, W., Whistler, Art Journal, April 1887, pp.97103.
Du Maurier 1951
Du Maurier, D., ed., The Young George Du Maurier: A Selection of his Letters 186067, London, 1951.
Du Maurier 1894a
Du Maurier, G., Trilby, Harpers New Monthly Magazine (US ed.), FebruaryMarch 1894.
Du Maurier 1894b
Du Maurier, G., Trilby: A Novel, New York, 1894.
Henry Treffry Dunn: Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and His Circle, or Cheyne Walk Life, ed. R. Mander, Westerham, Kent, 1984 (enlarged ed. of work first published 1904, ed. G. Pedrick).
Duret, T., Histoire de J. McN. Whistler et de son Oeuvre, Paris, 1904.
Eddy, A.J., Recollections and Impressions of James A. McNeill Whistler, Philadelphia and London, 1903.
Eden, T., The Tribulations of a Baronet, London, 1933.
Farr, F., The Dancing Faun, London, 1893.
Foster, K.A., American Drawings, Watercolours and Prints, Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol.37, no.4, Spring 1980, pp.152.
Fredeman, W.E., ed., The Correspondence of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 9 vols, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 200210.
Gallatin, A.E., Whistlers Pastels and Other Modern Profiles, New York, 1912.
Gallatin, A.E., The Portraits and Caricatures of James McNeill Whistler: An Iconography, with twenty examples, ten hitherto unpublished, London and New York, 1913.
Gallatin, A.E., Whistler: The Self-Portraits in Oil, Art in America, vol.1, July 1913, pp.1518.
Gallatin, A.E., Notes on Some Rare Portraits of Whistler, Print-Collectors Quarterly, vol.5, no.4, December 1915, pp.43343.
Gallatin, A.E., Notes on Some Rare Portraits of Whistler, London and New York, 1916.
Gallatin, A.E., Portraits of Whistler: A Critical Study and an Iconography, London and New York, 1918.
Gallatin, A.E., Sir Max Beerbohm: Bibliographical Notes, Cambridge, MA, 1944.
Getscher, R., and P.G. Marks, James McNeill Whistler and John Singer Sargent, New York and London, 1986.
Gray, A., The Edwardians: Secrets and Desires, exh. cat., National Gallery of Australia, 2004.
Walter Greaves, 18461930, and the Goupil Gallery: Paintings, Drawings and Etchings, exh. cat., Michael Parkin Fine Art, London, 1984.
Guthrie, J.J., By the Way, Books and Bookplates, vol.4, no.3, 19034, pp.1416.
Guzzi, V., Il Ritratto nella pittura italiana dellOttocento, Milan, 1967.
Hall, N.J., Max Beerbohm Caricatures, New Haven and London, 1997.
Hall, N.J., Max Beerbohm: A Kind of Life, New Haven and London, 2002.
Harris, E., Carlo Pellegrini: Man and Ape, Apollo, vol.103, January 1976, pp.537.
Harris & Ormond 1976
Harris, E., and R. Ormond, Vanity Fair: An Exhibition of Original Cartoons, exh. cat., NPG, London, 1976.
Hart-Davis, R., A Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London, 1972.
Drawings and Paintings by Artists of Norfolk and Suffolk in the Collection of J.P. H[eseltine]., privately printed, London, 1914.
Hinshaw, I.C., Whistlers First Drawings: Unpublished Sketches Made at West Point, The Century Magazine, September 1910, pp.73541.
Houfe, S., The Dictionary of 19th-Century British Book Illustrators and Caricaturists, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1996 (rev. ed. of Houfe 1978).
Howe, Thomas Carr, Sargent and Boldini, London, 1959.
Hubbard, E., Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Artists: Whistler, 2 vols, East Aurora, NY, 1902.
Ingamells, J., Greaves and Whistler, Apollo, March 1969, pp.2245.
Jackson, H., All Manner of Folk, London, 1912.
Jerrold, W., ed., Bon-Mots of Samuel Foote and Theodore Hook, London, 1894.
Jopling, L., Twenty Years of My Life, 1867 to 1887, London, 1925.
Juillien, A., Fantin-Latour: sa vie et ses amitiés, lettres inédites et souvenirs personnels, Paris, 1909.
Kenin, R., Return to Albion: Americans in England, 17601940, New York, 1979 (to accompany exh., National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC).
Kennedy, E.G., The Etched Work of Whistler, Illustrated by Reproductions in Collotype of the Different States of the Plates, New York, 1910.
Kennedy Gallery 1970
Art in Prints, exh. cat., Kennedy Gallery, New York, 1970.
Lavery, Ludovici & Pennell 1905
Lavery, J., A. Ludovici and J. Pennell, Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the Late James McNeill Whistler, First President of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters, and Gravers, exh. cat., New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 1905.
Lochnan, K.A., The Etchings of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1984.
Artists and Writers: An Exhibition of Watercolours, Drawings and Etchings, exh. cat., Michael Parkin Gallery, London, 1976.
The Mark of Whistler: James McNeill Whistlers Influence on Graphics, exh. cat., Michael Parkin Fine Art, London, 1979.
A Look at British Printmakers, 18601940: An Exhibition of Etchings, Lithographs and Woodcuts, exh. cat., Parkin Gallery, London, 1981.
Artists of the Yellow Book and the Circle of Oscar Wilde, exh. cat., London, Clarendon Gallery and Parkin Gallery, London, 1983.
Maas, J., The Victorian Art World in Photographs, London, 1984.
McClelland, D.R., Where Shadows Live: Alice Pike Barney and her Friends, exh. cat., National Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, DC, 1978.
MacDonald, M.F., Notes, Harmonies, Nocturnes, exh. cat., M. Knoedler & Co., New York, 1984.
MacDonald, M.F., James McNeill Whistler: Drawings, Pastels and Watercolours. A Catalogue Raisonné, New Haven and London, 1995.
MacDonald, M.F., ed., Whistlers Mother: An American Icon, London, 2003.
MacDonald, Galassi & Ribeiro 2003
MacDonald, M.F., S.G. Galassi and A. Ribeiro, with P. de Montfort, Whistler, Women and Fashion, New Haven and London, 2003 (to accompany exh., The Frick Collection, New York).
MacFall, C.H.C., Whistler: Butterfly, Wasp, Wit, Master of the Arts, Enigma, Edinburgh and London, 1905.
Malley, A., Staples, Sir Robert Ponsonby, twelfth baronet (18531943), ODNB, Oxford, online ed., May 2011.
Mansfield, H., A Descriptive Catalogue of the Etchings and Dry-Points of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Chicago, 1909.
Mather, F.J., A Sketchbook of 1875 and 1876 by Homer D. Martin, Record of the Museum of Historic Art, Princeton University, vol.4, no.1, Spring 1945, pp.58.
Menpes, M., Whistler as I Knew Him, London and New York, 1904.
Merrill, L., A Pot of Paint: Aesthetics on Trial in Whistler v. Ruskin, Washington, DC, and London, 1992.
Merrill, L., The Peacock Room: A Cultural Biography, New Haven and London, 1998.
Mullaly, H., From Courts to Commons, Apollo, vol.111, April 1980, pp.3312.
Nicholson, W., London Types, London, 1898.
Nicholson, W., Twelve Portraits, 1st series, London, 1899.
Noon, P.J., English Portrait Drawing Miniatures, New Haven, 1979.
Northrop, W.B., With Pen and Camera, London, 1904.
NPG CIC 2004
Saywell, D., and J. Simon, National Portrait Gallery: Complete Illustrated Catalogue, NPG, London, 2004 (first edition 1981).
Ormond, L., George Du Maurier, London, 1969.
Ormond, R., Private Life of a Victorian Painter: John Gilbert, Country Life, vol.140, 25 August 1966, pp.4625.
Pearson, H., The Man Whistler, London, 1952.
Pennell, E.R., The Life of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1920.
Pennell & Pennell 1908
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London, 1908.
Pennell & Pennell 1911
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London, 5th ed., rev., 1911.
Pennell & Pennell 1912
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, Whistler as Decorator, The Century Magazine, vol.83, February 1912, pp.500513.
Pennell & Pennell 1921
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, The Whistler Journal, Philadelphia, 1921.
Phythian, J.E., Fifty Years of Modern Painting: Corot to Sargent, London, 1908.
Pocock, T., Chelsea Reach: The Brutal Friendship of Whistler and Walter Greaves, London, 1970.
Prandi, D., Giovanni Boldini: lopera incisa, Reggio Emilia, 1970.
Pressley, N.D., Whistler in America: An Album of Early Drawings, Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol.5, 1972, pp.12554.
G.A. Reynolds 1984
Reynolds, G.A., Giovanni Boldini and Society Portraiture 18801920, exh. cat., Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University, New York, 1984.
Rogers, M., Camera Portraits, exh. cat., NPG, London, 1989.
Roof, K.M., The Life and Art of William Merritt Chase, New York, 1917.
Rossetti, W.M., ed., Rossetti Papers, 18621870, London, 1903.
Rothenstein, J., The Portrait Drawings of William Rothenstein 18891925, London, 1926.
Rothenstein, W., Men and Memories: Recollections of William Rothenstein, 2 vols, London, 19312.
Sato, Lambourne & Holland 2000
Sato, T., L. Lambourne, M. Holland and others, The Wilde Years: Oscar Wilde and the Art of His Time, exh. cat., Barbican Art Gallery, London, 2000.
Shaw, E., Four Years with Whistler, Apollo, vol.87, no.73, March 1968, pp.198201.
Spencer, R., James McNeill Whistler 18341903, exh. cat., Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1969.
Spencer, R., Whistler, James Abbott McNeill (18341903), ODNB, Oxford, 2004; online ed., May 2010.
Stetz, M.D., Facing the Late Victorians: Portraits of Writers and Artists from the Mark Samuels Lasner Collection, Newark, DE, 2007.
Stubbs, B.A., Paintings, Pastels, Drawings, Prints, and Copper Plates by and attributed to American and European Artists, together with a list of original Whistleriana in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1948.
Sturgis et al. 2006
Sturgis, A., and others, Rebels and Martyrs: The Image of the Artist in the Nineteenth Century, exh. cat., London, 2006.
Sutton, D., James McNeill Whistler: Paintings, Etchings, Pastels and Watercolours, London, 1966.
Symons, A., Studies in Seven Arts, London, 1906.
Taylor, G., ed., Byam Shaw: A Selection of Paintings and Book Illustrations, exh. cat., Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1986.
Tedeschi & Salvesen 1998
Tedeschi, M., and B. Salvesen, Songs on Stone: James McNeill Whistler and the Art of Lithography, Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, vol.24, no.1, 1998 (to accompany exh., Art Institute of Chicago and National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 19981999).
Thomas, R., A Catalogue of the Etchings and Drypoints of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, privately printed, London, 1874.
Thorpe, J., English Illustration: The Nineties, London, 1935.
Van Devanter & Frankenstein 1974
Van Devanter, A.C., and A.V. Frankenstein, American Self-Portraits 16701973, exh. cat., International Exhibitions Foundation, Washington, 1974.
Vann, P., Face to Face: British Self-Portraits in the 20th Century, Bristol, 2004.
Victoria and Albert 1957
Dept of Engraving, Illustration and Design and Department of Paintings, Accessions 1948, vol.2, Henry Herbert Harrod Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1957.
Walkley, G., Artists Houses in London 17641914, Aldershot, 1994.
Wallis, N., ed., Fin de Siècle: A Selection of Late 19th-Century Literature and Art, London, 1947.
Ward, L., Forty Years of Spy, London, 1915.
Warner, M., The Victorians: British Painting 18371901, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1997.
Way, T.R., Mr. Whistler as a Lithographer, The Studio, vol.30, no.127, October 1903, pp.1021.
Way, T.R., Memories of James McNeill Whistler, London and New York, 1912.
Way & Dennis 1903
Way, T.R., and G.R. Dennis, The Art of James McNeill Whistler: An Appreciation, London, 1903.
Wedd et al. 2001
Wedd, K., with L. Peltz and C. Ross, Creative Quarters: The Art World in London from 1700 to 2000, exh. cat., Museum of London, 2001.
Wedmore, F., Whistlers Etchings: A Study and a Catalogue, London, 1886.
Whistler, J.M., Eden versus Whistler: The Baronet and the Butterfly. A Valentine with a Verdict, Paris and New York, 1899.
Whistler, J.M., Mr Whistlers Ten OClock, Chicago, 1904.
The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler, 18551903, ed. M.F. MacDonald, P. de Montfort and N. Thorp, including The Correspondence of Anna McNeill Whistler, 18551880, ed. G. Toutziari, University of Glasgow, online ed., 200310
Whistler Etchings Catalogue
M.F. MacDonald, with G. Petri, M. Hausberg and J. Meacock, James McNeill Whistler: The Etchings: A Catalogue Raisonné, University of Glasgow, online ed., 2011
Whiteley, D. Pepys, George Du Maurier, London, 1948.
Wilmerding, J., Audubon, Homer, Whistler and Nineteenth-century America, New York, 1975.
Wilson, S., Beardsley, Oxford, rev. ed., 1983.
Wilson & Zatlin 1998
Wilson, S., and L. Zatlin, Aubrey Beardsley: A Centenary Tribute, exh. cat., Kawasaki City Museum, Kanagawa, 1998.
Wittmann, O., The Toledo Museum of Art: European Paintings, Toledo, 1976.
Wood, T.M., Drawings and Sketches by Modern Masters, The Studio, vol.39, January 1907, pp.33445.
Young, Macdonald & Spencer 1980
Young, A.M., M. MacDonald and R. Spencer, with H. Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, New Haven and London, 1980.
Young, M.S., Revaluations I: The Colonel Reconsidered, Apollo, vol.75, NS, 1962, pp.18995.
Young, M.S., Romantic Art from Britain, Apollo, vol.87, April 1968, pp.300305.
Young, M.S., Youth and Old Age, Apollo, vol.88, October 1968, pp.3037.