© National Portrait Gallery, London
Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland
by William Faithorne, after Sir Peter Lely Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, 1666
14 in. x 11 in. (356 mm x 280 mm) plate size; 14 1/8 in. x 11 1/8 in. (360 mm x 283 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- William Faithorne (circa 1620-1691), Engraver and draughtsman. Artist associated with 716 portraits, Sitter associated with 4 portraits.
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 841 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
The Great Fire of London starts in a baker's shop in Pudding Lane, destroying two-thirds of the city. Charles II and James, Duke of York personally direct and manually assist with the fire-fighting effort. Thousands are left homeless, though few people die.
Art and science
Mathematical scientist, Isaac Newton, formulates a series of groundbreaking theories concerning light, colour, calculus, and, after supposedly watching an apple fall from a tree, the universal law of gravitation. Nicholas Lanier, Master of the King's Music dies and Frenchman Louis Grabu is appointed the post.
The Four Days' Battle. Dutch navy led by Admiral Michiel de Ruyter attacks the English fleet under George Monck, Duke of Albemarle, now Joint- Commander-in-Chief with Prince Rupert. Outcome of the battle is indecisive, though England looses twice as many men and ships, severely damaging the fleet.