© National Portrait Gallery, London
after Sir Peter Lely Click on the links below to find out more
oil on canvas, circa 1654
30 3/4 in. x 25 3/4 in. (781 mm x 654 mm)
Transferred from British Museum, 1879
- James Ussher (1580-1656), Archbishop of Armagh. Sitter associated with 44 portraits.
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 841 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
Under the constitution prescribed in 'The Instrument of Government', the first Protectorate Parliament is summoned by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector. The constitution also marks the first systematic distribution of Parliamentary seats, listing MPs to be returned to Parliament. William Lenthall, Speaker of the House since 1640, continues as Speaker.
Art and science
Poet and polemicist, John Milton, writes Defensio secunda
, in defence of the Parliamentary regime, and in response to an anonymous royalist tract which violently attacked Milton, the Clamor
, published in The Hague in 1652, most probably written by religious controversialist, Anglican Peter Du Moulin.
Charles X, King of Sweden, ascends the Swedish throne after the scandal of Queen Kristina's abdication and subsequent conversion to Catholicism. Treaty of Westminster is signed ending the First Anglo-Dutch War.King Louis XIV of France is crowned at Rheims.