© National Portrait Gallery, London
King Charles II
after Adriaen Hanneman Click on the links below to find out more
oil on canvas, (circa 1648)
29 1/2 in. x 25 1/2 in. (749 mm x 648 mm)
- King Charles II (1630-1685), Reigned 1660-85. Sitter associated with 294 portraits.
- Adriaen Hanneman (1601?-1671?), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 32 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
- Piper, David, Catalogue of Seventeenth Century Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery, 1625-1714, 1963, p. 66
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 116
Resurgence of civil war largely ends at the battle of Preston, won by Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell's command.Parliamentary General Henry Ireton's Army Remonstrance demands the king is tried an enemy of the state. Ireton also instigates a coups d'état, Pride's Purge, ridding Parliament of MPs supporting negotiations with Charles.
Art and science
John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester, publishes Mathematical Magick
, the first work in English on the fundamental principles of mechanics, conceived in the form of a practical manual.
A series of European treaties, negotiated since 1644, results in the Peace of Westphalia and ends the German phase of the Thirty Years' War, and war between the Dutch and Spain in the Eighty Years' War. Delegations are sent from around Europe, Henri II d'Orleans leads the French delegation.