© National Portrait Gallery, London
attributed to Samuel Cooper Click on the links below to find out more
watercolour on vellum, circa 1655
2 3/8 in. x 1 7/8 in. (60 mm x 48 mm) oval
- Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), Lord Protector of England. Sitter associated with 223 portraits.
- Samuel Cooper (1609-1672), Miniature painter. Artist associated with 110 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
- Cooper, John, Oliver the First: Contemporary Images of Oliver Cromwell, 1999, p. 24
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 155
- Walker, Richard, Miniatures: 300 Years of the English Miniature, 1998, p. 33
Secretary of State, John Thurloe, implements a highly efficient intelligence service and thwarts plans for a series of royalist uprisings which produced only Penruddock's revolt. Following ineffectual royalist riots, Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, appoints nineteen Major-generals to manage regional government and prevent future challenges to the protectorate.
Art and science
Publication of the controversial work De corpore
, by philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, prompts mathematician, John Wallis to scornfully refute the work in Elenchus geometriae Hobbianae
, starting a bitter, long-running polemical dispute between the two men.
General Robert Venables and Admiral William Penn lead an expedition to the Caribbean to threaten Spanish trade routes and weaken Catholic influence in the New World. An integral part of Cromwell's foreign policy to curb Spanish power, the campaign, Cromwell's 'western design', fails leading to war in Europe.