© National Portrait Gallery, London
King James II
by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt Click on the links below to find out more
oil on canvas, 1684
93 3/4 in. x 58 1/8 in. (2382 mm x 1477 mm)
- King James II (1633-1701), Reigned 1685-88. Sitter associated with 132 portraits.
- Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (1646-1723), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 1681 portraits, Sitter associated with 30 portraits.
- Ingamells, John, Later Stuart Portraits 1685-1714, 2009, p. 123
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 332
- Williamson, David, Kings and Queens, 2010, p. 107
James, Duke of York's influence grows within Charles II's government; the Admiralty commission is abolished, allowing James to resume his role as lord admiral, in all but name. A new generation of Tories, supporters of James are bestowed with influential roles, including Sir George Jeffreys, recently appointed Lord Chief Justice.
Art and science
Italian decorative artist, Antonio Verrio, is appointed 'principal Gardiner and Surveyor' to the King. Author, John Bunyan, publishes the second part of his Pilgrim's Progress
Luxembourg surrenders to French forces. Renewed fighting between the French Bourbons and the Spanish Habsburgs had broken out the year before when French troops laid seize to Luxembourg and entered the Spanish Netherlands. Charles II rejects Spanish demands for assistance, determined to remain detached from the conflict.