© National Portrait Gallery, London
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
possibly by John Closterman, after John Riley Click on the links below to find out more
oil on canvas, feigned oval, (circa 1685-1690)
29 5/8 in. x 24 3/4 in. (754 mm x 630 mm)
- John Closterman (1660-1711). Artist associated with 61 portraits.
- John Riley (1646-1691), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 101 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
Charles II dies, his heir, Catholic brother, James II, succeeds to the throne. Despite deep distrust by many Protestants, he initially experiences unexpected popularity. James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, leads the Monmouth Rebellion ambitious to seize the throne. Following his defeat at Sedgemoor, Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill.
Art and scienceOpera Universa
, by physician Thomas Sydenham, considered the father of English medicine, is published in London. Organist, Henry Purcell composes, My heart is inditing
, for the coronation of James II and his queen, Mary of Modena. Writer on dentistry, Charles Allen publishes the earliest known English book on dentistry.
The Edict of Fontainebleau is issued by Louis XIV revoking the Edict of Nantes which gave Huguenots a right to practice their religion, free from persecution. Although Huguenots had steadily left France since the Dragonnades in 1681, this edict essentially ended official religious toleration in France.