© National Portrait Gallery, London
Mary, Princess of Orange
by Cornelius Johnson Click on the links below to find out more
oil on panel, 1639
11 3/8 in. x 7 7/8 in. (289 mm x 200 mm)
- Mary, Princess of Orange (1631-1660), Daughter of Charles I; wife of William II of Orange-Nassau. Sitter associated with 49 portraits.
- Cornelius Johnson (1593-1661), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 138 portraits, Sitter associated with 3 portraits.
This portrait shows Mary before a view of a knot garden in which women and children are walking with a vista of a landscape beyond. It is one of three painted by Johnson of the royal children.
First Bishop's War. Conflict between Scotland and England over the king's intention to replace Scottish Presbyterianism with High Anglicanism is fiercely opposed by Scottish covenanters. Both sides assemble armies with Archibald Campbell, Marquess of Argyll emerging as leader of the covenanters. Only skirmishes occur, quickly leading to negotiations at Berwick.
Art and science
Archbishop Laud donates the Peterborough Chronicle
, one of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
, to the Bodleian Library. Astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks having predicted the transit of Venus in November, observes and records it. Horrocks's draft treatise on the planet's transit, Venus in sole visa
, is posthumously published by Johannes Hevelius in 1662.
Naval Battle of the Downs. Dutch Admiral Maarten Tromp, decisively defeats the Spanish, under Admiral Antonio de Oquendo. It is fought in the English Channel. Francis Day, of the British East India Company, acquires land from King of Chandragiri, and founds Fort St. George, which would later become Madras (Chennai).