© National Portrait Gallery, London
James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose
after Gerrit van Honthorst Click on the links below to find out more
oil on canvas, 1649
30 3/4 in. x 25 3/8 in. (781 mm x 644 mm)
- Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656), Artist. Artist associated with 51 portraits, Sitter in 5 portraits.
Charged with subverting the nation's laws and liberties and cruelly making war against Parliament and the English people, Charles I is found guilty by a court of 159 commissioners, and beheaded outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall. England is declared a commonwealth and power is entrusted to a Council of State.
Art and scienceEikon Basilike
, a self-exonerating account of Charles I's rule, is published days after his death. Allegedly written by the king himself, John Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, claimed authorship after the Restoration. Other tributes followed the king's death giving rise to a royalist cult of Charles the Martyr.
Oliver Cromwell, as lord lieutenant of Ireland, begins his brutal campaign in Ireland to subdue royalist support, and leads English Parliamentarian forces against the Royalist-Confederate coalition. The campaign's bloody massacres, in particular, the Siege of Drogheda and Wexford where Cromwell's troops slaughtered soldiers and civilians alike, became notorious.