© National Portrait Gallery, London
Frances Teresa Stuart, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox
cast of a medal by John Roettier Click on the links below to find out more
silver medal, 19th century, based on a work of circa 1667
2 3/4 in. (70 mm) diameter
- Macleod, Catharine; Alexander, Julia Marciari, Painted Ladies: Women at the Court of Charles II, 2001 (accompanying the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery from 11 October 2001 to 6 January 2002), p. 174
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 522
Leading figures of the 'Cabal' ministry, Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington and George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, engineer the downfall of first minister, Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, who is ousted from Parliament. Fallen out of favour with the king, Clarendon's pompous attitude and conservatism had made him increasingly unpopular.
Art and science
Dutch woodcarver and sculptor Grinling Gibbons arrives in England. His innovative, naturalistic foliage woodcarving, with emphasis on sculptural form, became hugely popular. Poet John Milton sells the rights to his epic poem, Paradise Lost
(1663), to printer Samuel Simmons.
Dutch Admiral Michiel de Ruyter leads his fleet up the River Medway and succeeds in destroying several of Britain's warships at Chatham. Peace negotiations to end the Anglo-Dutch War were already in progress in Breda, but the attack encouraged a humiliated Charles II to hastily sue for peace.