© National Portrait Gallery, London
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
by John Francis Click on the links below to find out more
marble bust, 1832
27 1/2 in. (699 mm) high
Given by Francis Charles Hastings Russell, 9th Duke of Bedford, 1883
- John Francis (1780-1861). Artist associated with 4 portraits.
William IV agrees to the creation of new peers in order to obtain the passage of the Reform Act, although this proved unnecessary when the Tories withdrew opposition. Male franchise is extended by fifty percent; fifty-six 'rotten boroughs' lose representation and forty-one new constituencies are created. Irish and Scottish Reform Acts are also passed.
Art and science
Mathematician Charles Babbage publishes his best selling Economy of Machinery and Manufactures
. In response to recent outbreaks of machine-breaking and riots, he aimed to reveal the sources of Britain's industrial strength to the urban elite and promote institutional change.Parliament votes funds for National Gallery buildings in Trafalgar Square.
Free land grants end for English settlers in Australia on recommendation of the leading colonisation theorist Edward Wakefield in his Letter from Sydney
.Greek independence recognised by the Treaty of London.