© National Portrait Gallery, London
by Thomas Simon Click on the links below to find out more
gold medal, 1649
1 3/8 in. (35 mm) diameter
- Henry Scobell (circa 1610-1660), Clerk of the Parliament. Sitter in 3 portraits.
- Thomas Simon (1618-1665). Artist associated with 24 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
Charged with subverting the nation's laws and liberties and cruelly making war against Parliament and the English people, Charles I is found guilty by a court of 159 commissioners, and beheaded outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall. England is declared a commonwealth and power is entrusted to a Council of State.
Art and scienceEikon Basilike
, a self-exonerating account of Charles I's rule, is published days after his death. Allegedly written by the king himself, John Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, claimed authorship after the Restoration. Other tributes followed the king's death giving rise to a royalist cult of Charles the Martyr.
Oliver Cromwell, as lord lieutenant of Ireland, begins his brutal campaign in Ireland to subdue royalist support, and leads English Parliamentarian forces against the Royalist-Confederate coalition. The campaign's bloody massacres, in particular, the Siege of Drogheda and Wexford where Cromwell's troops slaughtered soldiers and civilians alike, became notorious.