© National Portrait Gallery, London
Sir Henry Vane the Elder
possibly after Michiel Jansz. van Miereveldt Click on the links below to find out more
oil on panel, circa 1642
25 1/4 in. x 22 in. (641 mm x 559 mm)
Charles I fails to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects Parliament's Nineteen Propositions.Outbreak of Civil War. The Battle of Edgehill, the first fought between Royalist armies led by Lieutenant-General, Patrick Ruthven, Earl of Brentford and Parliamentarians under Captain-General, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, is inconclusive.
Art and science
Parliament closes all theatres in London judging entertainment sinful. A Jovial Crew
, by playwright, Richard Brome, is reportedly the last play staged before the closure. Poet, John Denham, writes Cooper's Hill
, a reflection on kingship during the current political upheavals.
Royalist soldier, James Butler, Duke of Ormonde, leads the king's forces in Ireland against the Irish Confederates. During the year, he successfully achieves victory at the battle of Kilrush and raises the siege of Drogheda. France's first minister, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu dies and is succeeded by Cardinal Jules Mazarin.