2 of 224 portraits of Oliver Cromwell
by Samuel Cooper
watercolour on vellum, 1649
2 1/4 in. x 1 7/8 in. (57 mm x 48 mm) oval
Click on the links below to find out more:
Sitterback to top
- Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), Lord Protector of England. Sitter associated with 224 portraits.
Artistback to top
- Samuel Cooper (1609-1672), Miniature painter. Artist associated with 111 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
This portraitback to top
Samuel Cooper, the miniaturist who was described by the Grand Duke of Tuscany as 'a tiny man, all wit and courtesy', produced this fine portrait of Oliver Cromwell in 1649, the year of Charles I's execution. Cromwell at the time was in the process of becoming the effective leader of the Parliamentarian forces and is depicted looking callous and determined but not yet disfigured by the pimples and warts that were the distinguishing features of later portraits of him.
Linked publicationsback to top
- Cooper, John, Great Britons: The Great Debate, 2002, p. 60
- Cooper, John, Oliver the First: Contemporary Images of Oliver Cromwell, 1999, p. 23
- Cooper, John, Visitor's Guide, 2000, p. 34
- Cooper, John, A Guide to the National Portrait Gallery, 2009, p. 25
- John Cooper, National Portrait Gallery Visitor's Guide, 2006, p. 34
- Rogers, Malcolm, Master Drawings from the National Portrait Gallery, 1993 (accompanying the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery from 5 August to 23 October 1994), p. 25
- Saumarez Smith, Charles, The National Portrait Gallery: An Illustrated Guide, 2000, p. 63
- Saumarez Smith, Charles, The National Portrait Gallery, 1997, p. 63
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 155
- Various contributors, National Portrait Gallery: A Portrait of Britain, 2014, p. 74
- Walker, Richard, Miniatures: 300 Years of the English Miniature, 1998, p. 30
Events of 1649back to top
Current affairsCharged with subverting the nation's laws and liberties and cruelly making war against Parliament and the English people, Charles I is found guilty by a court of 159 commissioners, and beheaded outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall. England is declared a commonwealth and power is entrusted to a Council of State.
Art and scienceEikon Basilike, a self-exonerating account of Charles I's rule, is published days after his death. Allegedly written by the king himself, John Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, claimed authorship after the Restoration. Other tributes followed the king's death giving rise to a royalist cult of Charles the Martyr.
InternationalOliver Cromwell, as lord lieutenant of Ireland, begins his brutal campaign in Ireland to subdue royalist support, and leads English Parliamentarian forces against the Royalist-Confederate coalition. The campaign's bloody massacres, in particular, the Siege of Drogheda and Wexford where Cromwell's troops slaughtered soldiers and civilians alike, became notorious.
See this portrait
On display in Room 5 at the National Portrait Gallery