© National Portrait Gallery, London
by T.A. & J. Green Click on the links below to find out more
platinum print, 1880s
7 3/4 in. x 10 1/4 in. (197 mm x 260 mm)
- John Ruskin (1819-1900), Writer, artist and social reformer. Sitter associated with 80 portraits.
Ruskin was the most influential art critic of the nineteenth century. He first made his name with Modern Painters, the first volume of which was published in 1843. In 1871, following the death of his mother, Ruskin bought the small estate of Brantwood on Lake Coniston in the Lake District. He was to remain there for the rest of his life. This fine photograph was taken during one of his daily walks by the local photographers Thomas Andrew and James Green, from Saint Bees, near Whitehaven in Cumbria.
- Rogers, Malcolm, Camera Portraits, 1989 (accompanying the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery from 20 October 1989 - 21 January 1990), p. 111
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 538
The Liberals defeat the Conservatives, and Gladstone becomes Prime Minister for the second time, taking over from Disraeli, who retires from politics.The MP for Northampton and atheist Charles Bradlaugh, refuses to swear on the Bible and so forfeits his right to take his seat. Despite having the support of Gladstone and J.S Mill, it takes six years before he can take his seat, after which he pushes through a new Oaths Act (1888).
Art and science
Thomas Huxley delivers his address 'Science and Culture' at the opening of Josiah Mason's science college in Birmingham (published the following year). Huxley argues that the study of modern literature, combined with knowledge of science, should be promoted in education above classical literature, echoing the claim made by the poet and critic Matthew Arnold. Huxley, an early advocate of 'Darwinism', did much to popularise evolutionary theory.
Buenos Aires finally becomes the permanent capital of Argentina, following sixty years of political debates around the issue. The city was federalised, politically separated from the Buenos Aires Province, and placed under direct control of the national government. Despite allegations of vote buying, Cecil Rhodes is elected member of parliament for Barkly West in the Cape Colony, marking the start of his political career in South Africa.