© National Portrait Gallery, London
by Sir Peter Lely Click on the links below to find out more
oil on canvas, circa 1648
34 5/8 in. x 28 1/2 in. (879 mm x 724 mm)
- Henry Stone (1616-1653), Painter. Sitter in 3 portraits.
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 842 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
Resurgence of civil war largely ends at the battle of Preston, won by Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell's command.Parliamentary General Henry Ireton's Army Remonstrance demands the king is tried an enemy of the state. Ireton also instigates a coups d'état, Pride's Purge, ridding Parliament of MPs supporting negotiations with Charles.
Art and science
John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester, publishes Mathematical Magick
, the first work in English on the fundamental principles of mechanics, conceived in the form of a practical manual.
A series of European treaties, negotiated since 1644, results in the Peace of Westphalia and ends the German phase of the Thirty Years' War, and war between the Dutch and Spain in the Eighty Years' War. Delegations are sent from around Europe, Henri II d'Orleans leads the French delegation.