© National Portrait Gallery, London
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
after Magdalena de Passe, after Willem de Passe Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, (1620)
6 3/4 in. x 4 in. (173 mm x 102 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Magdalena de Passe (1600-1638), Engraver. Artist associated with 136 portraits, Sitter in 2 portraits.
- Willem de Passe (1597 or 1598-1636 or 1637), Engraver. Artist associated with 174 portraits.
The beginning of a severe economic depression in England is widely blamed on the East India Company whose export of bullion on each voyage financed their trade. Additionally, despite efforts by Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, to reduce the royal household's expenditure, James I's debt is historically high.
Art and science
Francis Bacon publishes his major philosophical work Novum Organum
, which presents his account of the correct method of acquiring natural knowledge using inductive reasoning. Inventor and mechanical engineer, Cornelis Drebbel builds an early type of submarine which he demonstrates on the Thames.
The Catholic League's invasion of Bohemia and victory at the battle of the White Mountain, forces Frederick V, king of Bohemia and his family into exile in the Hague, after less than a year reigning.The Pilgrim Fathers sail for America in the 'Mayflower', escaping religious persecution in England.