© National Portrait Gallery, London
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
by Walter Dolle, after Magdalena de Passe, after Willem de Passe Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, published 1672 (1620)
5 3/8 in. x 2 7/8 in. (137 mm x 74 mm) plate size; 5 5/8 in. x 3 1/4 in. (143 mm x 84 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Magdalena de Passe (1600-1638), Engraver. Artist associated with 136 portraits, Sitter in 2 portraits.
- Willem de Passe (1597 or 1598-1636 or 1637), Engraver. Artist associated with 174 portraits.
- Walter Dolle (active 1662-1674), Engraver. Artist associated with 19 portraits.
- NPG D25138: Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (from same plate)
Stop of the Exchequer, initiated principally by politician Thomas Clifford, later lord treasurer, causes financial panic as payment of Crown debts are suspended and redirected to fund the military for the ensuing Anglo-Dutch war. The declaration of indulgence suspends the penal laws against both Catholics and Nonconformists.
Art and science
Physician, Thomas Willis, writes 'De anima brutorum' (The Souls of Brutes), one of the earliest comprehensive publications on neurology and the brain. Mathematician, Sir Isaac Newton, is made a fellow of the Royal Society. Soon after, he presents to the Society his revolutionary theory of colours.
War with Holland. First naval battle at Solebay, during which Admiral Edward Montagu dies, proves inconclusive. However, occupation of Holland by French armies and general success of the English navy, initially overwhelms the Dutch. Amid upheaval, the Dutch rally under their new captain-general, William III, Prince of Orange.