© National Portrait Gallery, London
Fictitious portrait called King Stephen
published by Sir Robert Peake, probably after William Faithorne Click on the links below to find out more
etching, early 1640s
4 5/8 in. x 3 1/4 in. (117 mm x 82 mm) plate size; 8 5/8 in. x 6 3/4 in. (220 mm x 173 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- King Stephen (circa 1092-1154), Reigned 1135-54. Sitter associated with 21 portraits.
- William Faithorne (circa 1620-1691), Engraver and draughtsman. Artist associated with 719 portraits, Sitter associated with 4 portraits.
- Sir Robert Peake (circa 1605-1667), Printseller and royalist army officer. Artist associated with 61 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
Second Bishops' War. James Graham, Marquess of Montrose, leading the Scottish armies, occupies northeast of England. Defeat at the Battle of Newburn forces impoverished Charles to sign Treaty of Ripon. Long Parliament. Habeas Corpus Act is passed, abolishing the Star Chamber. Impeachment of Royalists, Earl of Strafford and Archbishop Laud.
Art and science
Author, James Howell, writes Dodona's Grove
, a historical allegory of events since 1603. A renowned royalist, Howell's anti-parliamentary remarks in the book would later attract accusations from parliamentarians. The last Caroline masque before the outbreak of civil war, Salmacida Spolia
by Sir William Davenant, is performed at Whitehall Palace.
Frederick William becomes Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. The Elector's policy of religious tolerance benefited his state during the religious struggles dominating the Thirty Years' War. The Bay Psalm Book
is published, the first book to be printed in British North America.