© National Portrait Gallery, London
Effie Brook Armstrong
by Metcalf & Welldon (Weldon) Click on the links below to find out more
albumen cabinet card, March 1880
6 in. x 3 7/8 in. (151 mm x 100 mm) image size
- Effie Brook Armstrong (born circa 1877), Daughter of Charles and Julia Armstrong, niece of Frederick and Mary Ann Hollyer (née Armstrong). Sitter in 2 portraits.
- Place made: United States (photographers' studio, 24 Temple Place, Boston, Massachusetts)
The Liberals defeat the Conservatives, and Gladstone becomes Prime Minister for the second time, taking over from Disraeli, who retires from politics.The MP for Northampton and atheist Charles Bradlaugh, refuses to swear on the Bible and so forfeits his right to take his seat. Despite having the support of Gladstone and J.S Mill, it takes six years before he can take his seat, after which he pushes through a new Oaths Act (1888).
Art and science
Thomas Huxley delivers his address 'Science and Culture' at the opening of Josiah Mason's science college in Birmingham (published the following year). Huxley argues that the study of modern literature, combined with knowledge of science, should be promoted in education above classical literature, echoing the claim made by the poet and critic Matthew Arnold. Huxley, an early advocate of 'Darwinism', did much to popularise evolutionary theory.
Buenos Aires finally becomes the permanent capital of Argentina, following sixty years of political debates around the issue. The city was federalised, politically separated from the Buenos Aires Province, and placed under direct control of the national government. Despite allegations of vote buying, Cecil Rhodes is elected member of parliament for Barkly West in the Cape Colony, marking the start of his political career in South Africa.