© National Portrait Gallery, London
by William Marshall, after Magdalena de Passe, after Willem de Passe Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, published 1648
5 1/4 in. x 4 3/8 in. (132 mm x 111 mm) paper size
Given by Henry Witte Martin, 1861
- Nicholas Ridley (1500-1555), Bishop of London. Sitter associated with 28 portraits.
- Magdalena de Passe (1600-1638), Engraver. Artist associated with 136 portraits, Sitter in 2 portraits.
- Willem de Passe (1597 or 1598-1636 or 1637), Engraver. Artist associated with 174 portraits.
- William Marshall (active 1617-1649), Engraver. Artist associated with 189 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
Resurgence of civil war largely ends at the battle of Preston, won by Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell's command.Parliamentary General Henry Ireton's Army Remonstrance demands the king is tried an enemy of the state. Ireton also instigates a coups d'état, Pride's Purge, ridding Parliament of MPs supporting negotiations with Charles.
Art and science
John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester, publishes Mathematical Magick
, the first work in English on the fundamental principles of mechanics, conceived in the form of a practical manual.
A series of European treaties, negotiated since 1644, results in the Peace of Westphalia and ends the German phase of the Thirty Years' War, and war between the Dutch and Spain in the Eighty Years' War. Delegations are sent from around Europe, Henri II d'Orleans leads the French delegation.