© National Portrait Gallery, London
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex
probably by Nicholas Pitaut II, after Adriaen van der Werff Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, possibly late 17th century
12 1/2 in. x 7 3/8 in. (318 mm x 186 mm) plate size; 12 7/8 in. x 7 3/4 in. (327 mm x 197 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- Nicholas Pitaut II (1670-1724), Engraver. Artist associated with 2 portraits.
- Adriaen van der Werff (1659-1722), Painter, draughtsman, mezzotint engraver and architect. Artist associated with 90 portraits.
Charles II mistress, Barbara Villiers, is created Duchess of Cleveland and granted Nonsuch Palace including its sizeable grounds. Actress and royal mistress, Nell Gwyn, gives birth to Charles II's son, Charles, who would later become, Duke of St. Albans.
Art and science
Tragicomedy, The Forc'd Marriage
, by Aphra Behn, staged by the Duke's Company, starts Behn's career as a professional writer. The writer may have been a royalist spy towards the end of the interregnum. Poet laureate, John Dryden, is made historiographer royal, a post he would hold for nearly 20 years.
Terms of a secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV are brought by Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans during a visit to Dover; upon England supplying the majority of military power for a war against Holland and Charles's official conversion to Catholicism, France would assist financially.