© National Portrait Gallery, London
François I (Francis I), King of France
by John Taylor ('J.T.') Wedgwood, after Titian Click on the links below to find out more
stipple engraving, published 1823
5 1/2 in. x 3 in. (140 mm x 77 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
Gaols Act is passed to build new prisons, raise standards in old ones and institute regular inspections. It is prompted by the vigorous campaigning of reformers such as Elizabeth Fry, leader of the Ladies Association for the Improvement of Female Prisoners in Newgate Prison.Anti-Slavery Committee is founded in London.
Art and science
Architect, Robert Smirke begins construction of the British Museum.Thomas Wakley founds The Lancet
, the first weekly medical journal and important mouthpiece of medical reform.Charles Babbage begins work on the first calculating machine. Charles Macintosh invents waterproof fabric.
Catholic Association is founded by Daniel O'Connell in Ireland in an attempt to mobilise and politicise the entire Irish Catholic population in a systematic challenge to the ruling Protestant ascendancy.War breaks out between France and Spain.English missionary John Smith died in prison having been sentenced to be hanged for failing to take up arms against slaves in Demerara.