© National Portrait Gallery, London
The Duke and Duchess of Fife and their daughters
by William Edward Downey, for W. & D. Downey Click on the links below to find out more
albumen cabinet card, early 1900s
5 5/8 in. x 3 7/8 in. (144 mm x 99 mm) image size
- Princess Alexandra, Princess Arthur of Connaught (1891-1959), Wife of Prince Arthur of Connaught; daughter of Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife. Sitter in 28 portraits.
- Alexander William George Duff, 1st Duke of Fife (1849-1912), Politician and diplomat; husband of Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife. Sitter in 19 portraits.
- Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife (1867-1931), Princess Royal; wife of 6th Earl of Fife, later Duke of Fife; daughter of King Edward VII. Sitter in 92 portraits.
- Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk (1893-1945), Wife of 11th Earl of Southesk; daughter of Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife. Sitter associated with 38 portraits.
- William Edward Downey (1855-1908), Photographer; son of William Downey. Artist associated with 11 portraits.
- W. & D. Downey (active 1855-1940). Artist associated with 922 portraits.
The Conservatives return to power, after the Prime Minister Lord Salisbury calls a general election, known as the 'Khaki election', on the back of huge jingoistic support for the Boer War. The Labour Representation Committee (LRC) is founded from a coalition of socialist groups; they win two seats in the 1900 election and Ramsay Macdonald is appointed secretary. The Labour politician Keir Hardie is also returned to Parliament for Merthyr Tydfilin Wales.
Art and science
German physicist Max Planck proposes the concept of the quantum theory. Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
is published. In the text, Freud outlines his theory of dream analysis, crucial to the study of the unconscious, and introduces key concepts in psychoanalysis, such as the Ego. The Paris International Exhibition, attended by more than 50 million people and including over 76,000 exhibitors, marks the heyday of Art Nouveau.
In China the Boxer rebellion takes place. The Boxers were anti-imperialist and against foreign influence in trade, religion, politics and technology in the final years of the Manchu rule. The Boxers invade Beijing, killing 230 foreigners and Chinese Christians. The rebellion is suppressed by a multinational coalition of 20,000 troops, with China being forced to pay large war reparations, contributing to growing nationalist resentment against the Qing dynasty.