© National Portrait Gallery, London
by Wenceslaus Hollar Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, 1643
4 7/8 in. x 3 in. (123 mm x 77 mm) plate size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677), Etcher. Artist associated with 529 portraits, Sitter associated with 10 portraits.
Signing of the Solemn League and Covenant. The treaty forms an alliance between the English Parliament and Scottish Covenanters. Sir Henry Vane emerges as the leading spokesman of the English delegation. The Westminster Assembly, comprising of clergymen and politicians, is appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Anglican Church.
Art and science
The authorised version of Religio Medici
(A Doctor's Religion), by Norwich physician Sir Thomas Browne, is published. A type of personal memoir, the work gained Browne a European reputation. Parliament issues a licensing order stipulating that all books are examined prior to publication, inciting John Milton to write Areopagitica
Aged four, Louis XIV inherits the French throne. He would become the longest reigning monarch in European history. Charles I orders James Butler, Duke of Ormonde, to arrange a ceasefire with the Catholics Confederates in Ireland, allowing Ormonde's Irish troops to fight against the Parliamentarians in England.