© National Portrait Gallery, London
Princess Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia and Electress Palatine
published by Broer Jansen Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, 17th century
8 5/8 in. x 5 3/4 in. (218 mm x 145 mm) plate size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex marches on the City but the rebellion fails. He is proclaimed a traitor and executed. A Spanish fleet lands in Ireland to assist the Catholic rebellion. Lord Mountjoy leads the English army to victory over the Irish and Spanish force at the Battle of Kinsale.Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury begins secret negotiations with James VI of Scotland to secure a peaceful handover of power after the Queen's death.
Art and science
William Shakespeare writes Twelfth Night
. The poet and clergyman John Donne begins The Progress of the Soul
, an unfinished satire on the soul of the apple eaten by Eve. The Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Edward Phelips builds Montacute House, Somerset.Sir James Lancaster leads the first trading venture of the East India Company to acquire spices from Sumatra.
Spanish Hapsburg forces lay siege of the United Provinces port of Ostend. The town surrenders in 1604 after one of the longest sieges in history and bloodiest battles of the Eighty Years' War, during which the Protestant United Provinces of the northern Netherlands fought for independence from Spain. Tokugawa Ieyasu, ruler of Japan, makes his capital at Yedo (present-day Tokyo).