© National Portrait Gallery, London
Princess Augusta Charlotte, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttell
by Richard Purcell (Charles or Philip Corbutt), after Sir Joshua Reynolds Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, mid 18th century
14 x 10 in. (357 mm x 253 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
Calendar Act (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) comes into force, abolishing the old Julian calendar and adopting the more accurate Gregorian calendar. The year now begins on 1st January rather than 25th March. Parliament passes a bill to bestow estates forfeited by Jacobites to the Crown and use the revenue to develop the Scottish Highlands.
Art and science
Artist William Hogarth publishes his influential book The Analysis of Beauty
which presents his ideas about aesthetics.Charles Avison publishes Essay on Musical Expression
; the first work of musical criticism published in English.Obstetrician William Smellie introduces scientific midwifery.
Benjamin Franklin flies a kite into a thunder cloud to demonstrate the nature of electricity.Georgia becomes a royal colony; the last of the thirteen American colonies.French seize or evict every English-speaking trader in the region of upper Ohio. Liberty Bell arrives in Philadelphia.Robert Clive forces the surrender of French troops in the aftermath of the Siege of Trichinopoly in India.