© National Portrait Gallery, London
Lucy Russell (née Harington), Countess of Bedford
by R. Cooper, after Cornelius Johnson (Jonson or Jonson van Ceulen) Click on the links below to find out more
stipple engraving, early 19th century
10 1/8 in. x 7 1/8 in. (258 mm x 182 mm) plate size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
Widespread food riots after poor harvests of 1798-9. Theorist, Thomas Malthus, controversially argues that poverty and food shortages are an inevitable consequence of population growth, challenging assumptions that populousness was a sign of national prosperity and power. His thesis contributed forcefully to the debate over the existing Poor Law.
Art and science
William Wordsworth publishes his Preface
to the Lyrical Ballads
; a retrospective explanation of his experimental poems written with Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It becomes one of the best-known manifestos of Romantic literature.
Lord Castlereagh, Chief Secretary for Ireland, is the main architect of the Act of Union under which Ireland is merged with Great Britain and the Irish parliament is abolished.British troops support successful uprising by Maltese against the French.Napoleon is victorious against Austrians at Marengo and reconquers Italy.