© National Portrait Gallery, London
George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Lord Francis Villiers
by James Macardell Click on the links below to find out more
19 5/8 in. x 14 in. (500 mm x 355 mm) plate size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- James Macardell (1727 or 1728-1765), Mezzotint engraver. Artist associated with 291 portraits, Sitter in 3 portraits.
Calendar Act (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) comes into force, abolishing the old Julian calendar and adopting the more accurate Gregorian calendar. The year now begins on 1st January rather than 25th March. Parliament passes a bill to bestow estates forfeited by Jacobites to the Crown and use the revenue to develop the Scottish Highlands.
Art and science
Artist William Hogarth publishes his influential book The Analysis of Beauty
which presents his ideas about aesthetics.Charles Avison publishes Essay on Musical Expression
; the first work of musical criticism published in English.Obstetrician William Smellie introduces scientific midwifery.
Benjamin Franklin flies a kite into a thunder cloud to demonstrate the nature of electricity.Georgia becomes a royal colony; the last of the thirteen American colonies.French seize or evict every English-speaking trader in the region of upper Ohio. Liberty Bell arrives in Philadelphia.Robert Clive forces the surrender of French troops in the aftermath of the Siege of Trichinopoly in India.