© National Portrait Gallery, London
King James II
by Robert Williams, after Samuel Cooper, published by Edward Cooper Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, late 17th century
11 7/8 in. x 9 3/4 in. (302 mm x 247 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- King James II (1633-1701), Reigned 1685-88. Sitter associated with 132 portraits.
- Edward Cooper (died 1725), Printseller. Artist associated with 169 portraits, Sitter in 3 portraits.
- Samuel Cooper (1609-1672), Miniature painter. Artist associated with 111 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.
- Robert Williams (active 1680-1704), Mezzotinter. Artist associated with 75 portraits.
Charles II mistress, Barbara Villiers, is created Duchess of Cleveland and granted Nonsuch Palace including its sizeable grounds. Actress and royal mistress, Nell Gwyn, gives birth to Charles II's son, Charles, who would later become, Duke of St. Albans.
Art and science
Tragicomedy, The Forc'd Marriage
, by Aphra Behn, staged by the Duke's Company, starts Behn's career as a professional writer. The writer may have been a royalist spy towards the end of the interregnum. Poet laureate, John Dryden, is made historiographer royal, a post he would hold for nearly 20 years.
Terms of a secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV are brought by Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans during a visit to Dover; upon England supplying the majority of military power for a war against Holland and Charles's official conversion to Catholicism, France would assist financially.