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The Bishops' Council

1 of 11 portraits of Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford

The Bishops' Council, after Unknown artist, 1688 or after - NPG D29879 - © National Portrait Gallery, London

© National Portrait Gallery, London

The Bishops' Council

after Unknown artist
mezzotint, 1688 or after
7 in. x 5 1/2 in. (177 mm x 139 mm) plate size; 12 3/4 in. x 10 1/8 in. (324 mm x 256 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
Reference Collection
NPG D29879

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Events of 1688back to top

Current affairs

The Glorious Revolution. Senior statesmen, increasingly resentful of James's assault upon liberties of his subjects, invite William III of Orange to invade England. Their action is spurred on by the acquittal of seven bishops who refused to read James II's declaration of indulgence from their pulpits. James flees into exile.

Art and science

George Savile, Marquess of Halifax, publishes his political tract, The Character of a Trimmer, written 1685, which urged Charles II to shake off his brother's influence. Writer, Aphra Behn, publishes Oroonoko, often considered to be an abolitionist treatise.


Nine Years' War. Threatened by William III's invasion of England and possible alliance of Protestant European states under his helm, Louis XIV sends French troops into the Rhineland. This pre-emptive strike ignites a war of attrition, and institutes a coalition of European states united in attempting to halt expansionist France.

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