© National Portrait Gallery, London
John Alexander Kinglake
by W. & D. Downey Click on the links below to find out more
albumen carte-de-visite, circa mid-late 1850s
3 1/2 in. x 2 1/8 in. (88 mm x 54 mm) image size
- W. & D. Downey (active 1855-1940). Artist associated with 922 portraits.
Britain and America sign a treaty establishing an International Copyright agreement. Dickens, whose Bleak House
is also published this year, was a particularly outspoken critic of these laws, as his works were freely published in America without any protection over copyright or royalties. He had lobbied the American Congress over the issue during his North American reading tour of 1842.
Art and science
David Livingstone makes a six month journey from the Zambezi river to the west coast of Africa.Harriet Martineau translates The Positive Philosophy of August Comte
. A scientific approach to understanding the natural world and human and social relations, positivism has an important influence on the development of the social sciences.Holman Hunt exhibits his The Light of the World
Diplomatic row over Napoleon's call to the Turkish empire to restore Roman Catholic rights in the Holy Land. Russia asserts her role of protecting the rights of all Christians in the Ottoman empire; French and British fleets are dispatched to the Dardanelles. The Turkish sultan, declaring that he will look after the rights of Christians, heightens tension, and the Crimean war begins with Turkey declaring war on Russia.