© National Portrait Gallery, London
Mary of Modena
by Pieter Stevens (Stephani), published by Louis Renard, after Sir Peter Lely Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, circa 1685-1688
14 1/2 in. x 11 1/8 in. (368 mm x 281 mm) plate size; 15 1/8 in. x 11 3/4 in. (383 mm x 298 mm) paper size
acquired unknown source, 1957
- Mary of Modena (1658-1718), Queen of James II. Sitter associated with 55 portraits.
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 842 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
- Louis Renard (1678-1746). Artist associated with 4 portraits.
- Pieter Stevens (Stephani) (active 1689), Engraver. Artist associated with 3 portraits.
Charles II dies, his heir, Catholic brother, James II, succeeds to the throne. Despite deep distrust by many Protestants, he initially experiences unexpected popularity. James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, leads the Monmouth Rebellion ambitious to seize the throne. Following his defeat at Sedgemoor, Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill.
Art and scienceOpera Universa
, by physician Thomas Sydenham, considered the father of English medicine, is published in London. Organist, Henry Purcell composes, My heart is inditing
, for the coronation of James II and his queen, Mary of Modena. Writer on dentistry, Charles Allen publishes the earliest known English book on dentistry.
The Edict of Fontainebleau is issued by Louis XIV revoking the Edict of Nantes which gave Huguenots a right to practice their religion, free from persecution. Although Huguenots had steadily left France since the Dragonnades in 1681, this edict essentially ended official religious toleration in France.