© National Portrait Gallery, London
Mary of Modena
by and published by Abraham Blooteling (Bloteling), after Sir Peter Lely Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, circa 1673-1685
13 5/8 in. x 10 1/8 in. (346 mm x 256 mm) plate size; 16 1/2 in. x 12 1/2 in. (418 mm x 317 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Mary of Modena (1658-1718), Queen of James II. Sitter associated with 55 portraits.
- Abraham Blooteling (Bloteling) (1640-1690), Engraver, draughtsman and print publisher. Artist associated with 69 portraits.
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 842 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
Controversially, James, Duke of York marries a Catholic, Mary of Modena, daughter of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena. Parliament passes anti-Catholic legislation, the Test Act, which excludes recusants from public office. Officials are required to take an oath and deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation.
Art and science
Poet laureate, John Dryden, influenced by the war against Holland, writes Amboyna
, a tragedy about the Amboyna massacre,1623, when English sailors were murdered by Dutch traders in Indonesia. The Chelsea Physic Garden is established by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries to train apprentices in plant identification.
War with Holland culminates in the Battle of Texel which effectively exhausts both sides, but results in a strategic Dutch victory. With tension mounting between the allies, lord of the Admiralty, Prince Rupert, blames the unsatisfactory outcome on French admiral d'Estrees, and poor provisions.