© National Portrait Gallery, London
Philip II, King of Spain
published by Balthasar Moncornet, after Alonso Sanchez Coello Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, mid 17th century
6 1/2 in. x 4 5/8 in. (165 mm x 119 mm) plate size; 7 1/8 in. x 5 1/8 in. (182 mm x 131 mm) paper size
acquired unknown source, 1957
Charles I's first surviving child, Charles, is born in St. James's Palace. He is baptised by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud, and brought up in the care of the Protestant Mary Curzon, Countess of Dorset.
Art and science
The Cottonian Library, containing the greatest resource of Old English and Middle English literature, founded by antiquary and anti-royalist, Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, is confiscated by the authorities.
Philip IV of Spain and Charles I sign the Treaty of Madrid, ending hostilities between the two countries. Spanish diplomat, Cesare Alessandro Scaglia, assists with the conclusion of the peace deal. German, Protestant land is regained from Catholic allies on account of Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War.