© National Portrait Gallery, London
Philip II, King of Spain
by and published by Christoffel van Sichem (Voschem) Click on the links below to find out more
line engraving, late 16th or early 17th century
7 3/8 in. x 5 3/4 in. (188 mm x 146 mm) plate size; 8 1/4 in. x 6 3/8 in. (211 mm x 161 mm) paper size
acquired unknown source, 1938
Pope Pius V issues a Papal 'bull' excommunicating Queen Elizabeth I from the Catholic Church. The bull provokes widespread anti-Catholicism in England. Elizabeth contemplates marriage with either Charles, Archduke of Austria or Henri, Duke of Anjou.
Art and science
Publication of The Scholemaster
by the royal tutor Roger Ascham, which popularises the educational views of the English nobility. The mathematician and antiquary John Dee's preface to the first English translation of Euclid's Elements of Geometrie
anticipates the experimental science of the seventeenth century.The Italian architect Andrea Palladio published I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura
(The Four Books of Architecture).
Treaty of St Germain-en-Laye ends the Third War of Religion in France. Huguenots (French Protestants) are granted religious freedom and the Huguenot leader Admiral Gaspard de Coligny becomes a dominant force at court.The Treaty of Stettin - Denmark agrees to recognise the independence of Sweden and Sweden abandons its claim to Norway.Ivan IV (the Terrible), Tsar of Russia, oversees the Massacre of Novgorod.