© National Portrait Gallery, London
Mary of Modena
by John Griffier, after Sir Peter Lely Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, late 17th century
13 5/8 in. x 9 7/8 in. (346 mm x 252 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- Mary of Modena (1658-1718), Queen of James II. Sitter associated with 55 portraits.
- John Griffier, Artist. Artist associated with 3 portraits.
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 841 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
Charles II mistress, Barbara Villiers, is created Duchess of Cleveland and granted Nonsuch Palace including its sizeable grounds. Actress and royal mistress, Nell Gwyn, gives birth to Charles II's son, Charles, who would later become, Duke of St. Albans.
Art and science
Tragicomedy, The Forc'd Marriage
, by Aphra Behn, staged by the Duke's Company, starts Behn's career as a professional writer. The writer may have been a royalist spy towards the end of the interregnum. Poet laureate, John Dryden, is made historiographer royal, a post he would hold for nearly 20 years.
Terms of a secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV are brought by Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans during a visit to Dover; upon England supplying the majority of military power for a war against Holland and Charles's official conversion to Catholicism, France would assist financially.