© National Portrait Gallery, London
Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive
by James Scott, after James Macardell, after Thomas Gainsborough Click on the links below to find out more
mezzotint, published 1871 (1762-1764)
9 in. x 6 3/4 in. (229 mm x 170 mm) plate size; 19 3/4 in. x 13 3/4 in. (502 mm x 350 mm) paper size
Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966
- Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), Portrait and landscape painter. Artist associated with 262 portraits, Sitter in 8 portraits.
- James Macardell (1727 or 1728-1765), Mezzotint engraver. Artist associated with 291 portraits, Sitter in 3 portraits.
- James Scott (circa 1809-circa 1889), Engraver. Artist associated with 132 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
Gladstone's first ministry continues with its programme of reform, with an overhaul of the civil service which is opened to public examination. The University Test Acts allow non-members of the Church of England to hold posts at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The Trade Union Act granted full legal status to trade union organisations, although the Criminal Law Amendment Act banned picketing. The first FA Cup competition is held.
Art and science
The Penny Farthing, the first efficient bicycle, is invented by British engineer, James Starley.The artist James Whistler paints a portrait of his mother, calling the nearly monochromatic portrait Arrangement in Grey and Black
. Although now one of Whistler's most recognisable paintings, it was nearly rejected by the Royal Academy at first.
France's shock defeat against Prussia radically alters Europe's status quo, leading to the deposition of Napoleon III and the creation of France's Third Republic, as well as Germany's unification and rise in military power and imperialist ambitions, as the Prussian King William I is pronounced Emperor of Germany. Further, Germany's annexing of the French regions Alsace and Lorraine provoked bitter land disputes which contributed to the outbreak of the First World War.