© National Portrait Gallery, London
The Duchess of Edinburgh with her husband, father and brother
by W. & D. Downey Click on the links below to find out more
albumen carte-de-visite, May 1874
2 1/4 in. x 3 5/8 in. (57 mm x 93 mm) image size
- Alexander II, Emperor of Russia (1818-1881), Reigned 1855-81. Sitter associated with 8 portraits.
- Alexei Alexandrovich, Grand Duke of Russia (1850-1908), Naval commander; son of Alexander II, Emperor of Russia. Sitter in 3 portraits.
- Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1844-1900), Naval officer; second son of Queen Victoria. Sitter associated with 76 portraits.
- Marie Alexandrovna, Duchess of Edinburgh (1853-1920), Wife of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh; daughter of Alexander II, Tsar of Russia. Sitter in 23 portraits.
- W. & D. Downey (active 1855-1940). Artist associated with 925 portraits.
Disraeli becomes Prime Minister for the second time, winning the general election and giving the Conservative party its first absolute majority since the 1840s.Professional opportunities for women develop, with the opening of the London School of Economics to women, the foundation of the London School of Medicine for Women and the Women's Protective and Provident League.
Art and science
The Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, Printmakers, etc., including Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Camille Pissarro organise an exhibition in Paris. Art critic Louis Leroy gives the group its name, criticising Monet's Impression, Sunrise
for being merely an unfinished 'impression'. Impressionism becomes recognisable for techniques such as short, broken brushstrokes barely conveying forms, pure unblended colours, and an emphasis on the effects of light.
Britain annexes the Gold Coast, the region on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa, now the independent nation of Ghana, following the second Ashanti war. The Treaty of Fomena secured massive financial reparations for the British, and strengthened their hold on the prosperous resources and trade routes in the regions. However, weakening the Ashanti tribe greatly destabilised the area.