© National Portrait Gallery, London
Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
by Louis Joseph Ghémar, for Ghémar Frères Click on the links below to find out more
albumen carte-de-visite, October 1862
3 3/8 in. x 2 1/8 in. (85 mm x 54 mm) image size
- Louis Joseph Ghémar (1820-1873), Printmaker and photographer. Artist associated with 6 portraits.
- Ghémar Frères (active 1860s). Artist associated with 73 portraits.
- NPG x197214: Album introductory carte-de-visite with members of the Royal Family (after)
The Lancashire cotton famine, a depression in the north-west textile industry brought about by the American civil war, reaches its climax. With large numbers of mills closing after Confederate blockades halted cotton supplies, many Lancashire families were in receipt of relief.
Art and science
Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard carry out the first pasteurisation tests, the process of heating liquids at 55 degree Celsius or higher for short periods of time, destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria and yeast. .Victor Hugo's novel Les Miserables
is published, covering the Napoleonic wars. It traces the ex-convict Jean Valjean's character against wider questions of social and political justice, duty and love.
Otto Eduard Leopold Bismarck becomes Minister-President of Prussia, appointed by Wilhelm I after the liberal Diet refused to authorise funding for a proposed reorganisation of the army. Bismarck, intent on maintaining royal supremacy, engineers the Unification of Germany during his time in office.John Hanning Speke claims to have found the source of the Nile, proving that the Victoria Nile issued from the north end of lake Victoria, over Ripon Falls.